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Diary and Letters of Rutherford B. Hayes
Civil War Letters of Lucy Webb Hayes
Our Home-President Hayes' horticulture diary
Dining at the White House During the Hayes Administration
Thomas Corwin Donaldson
Journal of Lucy Scott West at the White House During the Hayes Administration
Excursion to Baltimore & Washington, D.C., 1881 by Lucy E. Keeler
Corporal Elton Mackin: WWI 5th Marine Regiment Interview 1973
Civil War Letters of Robert H. Caldwell, 21st Ohio Volunteer Infantry
Civil War Memoir of Russell Hastings, 23rd O.V.I.
Spanish American War Diary of Clarence C. Childs

 

 

 
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Our Home-President Hayes' horticulture diary

Home of Rutherford B. Hayes

OUR HOME

Spiegel Grove, the nineteenth century estate of President Rutherford B. Hayes, is a triangular tract of land containing slightly more than twenty-five acres. Originally, it formed a portion of virgin timberland purchased by Hayes’ uncle, Sardis Birchard, in 1834. It was not until August 22, 1859, that Birchard broke ground for a residence in the middle of Spiegel Grove. Birchard planned to build a summer retreat for his nephew, who was then city solicitor of Cincinnati, Ohio. The Civil War slowed completion of the sixteen-room brick home until April 1863. Hayes’ Civil War service and his duties as a United States Congressman and governor of Ohio prevented the Hayes family from making Spiegel Grove their permanent residence until May 2, 1873. On that date, Hayes began keeping a record of the improvements to the grounds. Titled Our Home, the small diary enumerates the wide variety of plants - trees, flowers, vines, and shrubs - wild and domestic - existing in the Grove. The record reveals how Hayes developed and changed Spiegel Grove over the years. In 1997, Library Assistant John Ransom and volunteer George Sinclair prepared a typed transcript of Our Home.

"Our Home"
transcribed by
George Sinclair
&
John Ransom
1997

Our Home

1873

My Uncle, Sardis Birchard, has given me his favorite place "Spiegel Grove" about thirty acres South of John Street and North West of Buckland Avenue. I am now beginning to fit it up for my home. The rest of this book is to be used in jotting down items in regard to it, and to the improvements to be made. I begin this record the morning of 22 April — a cold, unseasonable morning, with an inch and a half of snow covering the ground and all of the trees. Our place is capable of good things, and is even now a very comfortable and beautiful home. Birch and Webb are at Cornell, Ruddy and Fanny are here, + Lucy + Scott are in Cincinnati. Uncle is confined to his room, Sarah Jane Grant manages the Domestic arrangements assisted by her mother. We have two horses "Old Whitey" age 22, & "Young Ned" a year ; two cows, one dog very old, "Major"; three girls help us, viz Caroline who knows no English, Caroline with Miss Grant + a fair girl Jane now temporarily absent. A host of cats and a sheep, "Gen. Grant" complete the list.

Our man "Ed" — Edward is a very well meaning Irishman who lives a quarter of a mile South on Buckland Avenue. But he can’t help having a drunken spree very often which for a day makes him helpless.

For previous "Mem" about our Home Place and its improvements see Diary of 1872-3 from p. 40 to p. 49 inclusive

2 May 1873. Today we are setting out trees— the weather is warm and showery. Mr. Day + 2 hands.
1st 2 Virginia Creepers and 2 Chinese Wistaria at the root of the old dead Spanish oak N.E. of the House
2d 5 Ches[t]nuts; 2 Weeping ash; and 2 Kilmarnock willows in the flower garden S.E. of the House
3d Behind (SW) of) Garden Cottage 7 Cherry trees— viz 2 Early black; 2 Rice Lake — late red—1 Early Richmond — sour red—;
South of Vine yard (9) viz 1 Belle Magnifique ½ sour late red; 2 Early Richmonds; 1 late Duke ½ sweet red; 1 White Eagle, late, sweet; 2 Gov Wood very early; 1 May Duke, Early Sweet, 1 Belle de Choisy, dark red, 1 Reine Hortense

(Apples) [smeared, rewritten] Apples
5 May planted a row of apple tress near the fence in front of the garden Cottage beginning at

(17)

North end as follows 2 Baldwins, 1 Primate 1 Early harvest, 1 golden sweet, 2 R.I. Greening, 1 Talman Sweet, I King of Tomkins Co.

May /73 planted—
A row of pear trees next westerly of the apple tree row and in front of the garden house. Beginning at North end 3 Bartletts, 1 Seckel, 1 Tyson, 1 Buffen, 2 Sheldon

—In the fall of 1864—

The peach trees in the garden North of John Street are 1st row next to apples 3 Hales Early; 1 large white cling; 1 old white cling, 1 old Mixon free [crossed out] cling stone; 1 old Mixon free stone. 2d row 4 Crawfords Early; 2 Coolidge fav- orite: 3d row, 1 red cheek Melocotoon, [Melocoton], 2 Cole s early red.— bore well 1873 but old

All killed, or died of old age 1874-5 The old peach trees North of John Street are First row next to apple trees 3 Hales Early; 1 Large Wh. Cling; 1 old Mixon Cling; 1 old Mixon free: Second row 4 Crawford Early; 2 Cooledge favorite: Third row 1 red cheek Melocotoon [Melocoton]; 2 Cole’s Early red.

All gone 1876

In May ‘73 I put up a Library or office building 18x28+16 ft high— with ornamental work on a plan by Mr. Johnson

1873
the Architect — Cost Carpenters work = 251.83; (hard lumber 6418 is included in this); Pine + sawing 24900; Hardware + glass 6775; Paint + Putty 2565; Painting + glazing 23.00; Architect 15Z; Total Z63223. The house is not yet plastered + is in other respects is unfinished in side— to remain so until it is moved to its permanent location.

17 June — The Chinese Wistaria has sent up a shoot on the dead oak about 7or 8 feet in length. It is now 1 foot 6 ½ inches below [crossed out] above the nail. The Virginia Creeper is about five feet with its most lengthy shoot. They were set out May 2d.
29 June. The Wistaria is now three feet eight inches (3ft 8 in) above the nail. It was one foot two a half inches (1 2 ½ ‘) below the nail on the 10th — a growth of 4 f 10 ½ in. in 19 days. Growth about 3 in. a day. The nail is 4 f 6 in above the root.
13 July — The Wistaria is today 11 ½ feet from the ground— has grown at least 10 feet since this time in May. An attempt to trim the top of the Spanish oak in August resulted in the ruin of the Wistaria by falling limbs. It had grown in three Months fifteen feet at least.
The Virginia Creeper is much the best however.

1873
It spreads out well, and sustains itself by the tendrils it shoots out. The Wistaria grows along a string, or other support, and does not spread.
1873
9 Sept. The condition of the John Street orchard is (Planted in the fall of 1864)
1
st Row E. side going N.
(2) Sweet Bough’s
bore a few apples
(1)
Golden Sweet abundant crop—all fell off ripe before Sept 1st—fairish sweet apple
2
nd Row (2) Primate.
(2) Early Harvest—small crop of good apples — ripe Early—1st week in August
(1) Clyde Beauty. Abundant crop of fine apples
(1) Gravenstein—a few fine apples — tree dying—
(2) Hawley 1st tree a few apples—tree looks badly. 2d tree dying—
3
d Row
(2) Jersey sweet full of small mealy red apples of little value— ripe Sept 1.
(2) (1 Fall Pippin dead — 1 Ditto — good crop of large fine apples
(2) 1 Seek no further—good crop, 1 Do Small do4th R(6) All Baldwins—Nos 4+6 full—2+5 fair— 1+3 small crop
(see for John St. orchard Diary Vol 12 p 24)

5th Row
(3) King full—(4+6 Rh 9 Gr full—5 do more)
(3) Rhode Island Greening. Summer Queen sweet*
6
th R
(2) N. Spy a few—1 do more(3) 1 Rambo full, 2+3 a few—(1) Wells Sw. full
7
th Row
(2) Wagner full to breaking—1+2 Bell fl very full—3 a few (3Bellflowers)
8
th Row
1 Tallman Sweet full. 1 Reddish Winter apple name not kn. a few — 1 Rox b Russett very full
(2) Roxbury Russett
9
th Row
1 Spitzenberg dying at end of limbs — 2 ditto full — 1 Daws Sweet very full—
(2 spitzens; 1 Engl. Russet; 1 Dawers Sweet) Plant White Pippin, Golden Russett

* The Summer Queen is next but one from N. End of 5th Row. A beautiful sweet apple

Oct 5, 1873— John Bradley Carrier agreed to take charge of Garden and Household matters for one year for Z400 payable monthly. He is to do all carpenter work, chores, etc. etc. required in improving this place. He is to have the Garden house and one acre of ground, and to keep a cow, etc., etc, etc. —From this date —

13 Jan, 74
Carrier is a mighty worker, + does well at many kinds of work He has
1. Built a good cow and Hen house
2. Moved the corn crib
3. Built a good Cistern 5½ feet diameter + 10 feet deep
4. Moved the office with Mr. Fosters aid
5. dug a cellar and roofed a Summer Kitchen
6. Built a barn yard fence + gates
7. " an ice house
8. Cleared two or three acres of under— brush etc. etc. etc.
The demon of drink is after him! He is not yet much inperil. I shall try to save him.

Jany 1874
Implements, tools, utensils etc etc
2 Ploughs Double Waggon old
1 shovel " Single " "
Iron Wedges Stone-boat
Pick axes
Mattock
Log chain
Post auger
Sickles
Saddles 2
Bridles 2
Carriage harness
Single Wagon "
Double " "
Iron rakes 3
Dung fork
Double tree
Single "
Pitch fork
Chop feed trough
Stone boat
Scythes 2 grass
Scythes 2 weeds + bushes
Crowbars 2
Work benches 2
Wheel barrows 2
Trowel 1

1875
New one horse wagon
" hand cart
" Iron Roller 400 lbs a Set of Carpenter tools viz 1 hand axe, 1 hatchet, 1 hammer, planes, saws,
chisels, augers

1874 (21)
Fruit + other trees
30 Jany 74
Orchard of Mr. Day
5 Balsam Firs, 2 White Spruce, 3 Austrian pine, 3 Scotch pine, 8 Norway Spruce, 5 small " 3 Hemlocks, 5 White pine, 6 Butternut, 12 Chestnuts ½ European ½ American

31 Jan 1874
Orchard of Mr. Muchmore
7 Apr 1876 Cherries
Received of Mr. Muchmore + planted on the 8th by Ruddy + self with John B Carrier, Thos Jackson Andy Whitmore as follows begin-ning north side of fruit orchard near the barn at East side.
1
st Row N.E. Corner + going west 1 Belle magnifique 2 Early Richmond
2
nd Row 2 May Duke, 2 Black Eagle, 2 Gov Wood
3
Row 2 Black Tartarian, I Early Harvest apple, 2 Rockport Bigarruau, 2 Coes Transparent
4
th Row 1 Blk Tartarian, 2 Early Purple, 2 Black English

1874 (23)
The Early harvest apple is a (set out in the orchard) tree10 year old [crossed out] ago — bore well last year. We. (Webb etc etc) pruned it on the 6th + hope it will grow. (An Experiment)
grew well Pears
Pears planted 8 Apr by Carrier, Jackson, Whitmore + self. I can’t give exact location, but about as follows
1
. Begins next west of main drain + 3 rows south of Ice house Dutchess 2, Dwarf L.B.D. Jersey 2 late
2
. South of above : : then Clapps favorite 1, 25 Aug Bartlett 3 (Ripe 1 Sept)
3. First south of privy Seckle 2, West + N part of pear ground Burr Darm— 6
4. South part Bloodgood 2 Early, South West Doyan Dest [?] 2, South west Flemish beauty 3.
Quinces

1874 (25)
Apples
Planted chiefly 13 April, 74 some 11 Ap + mostly by Ruddy and Jackson as follows Begin N.W. corner of garden Rows run S.
Row I. Begins at North End
Golden Beauty 1 x 2 (*) 83 (2)
Golden Russett 3 x 4 "
King 5
R.I. Greening 6 x 7
Netown Pippin 8 x 9 83 (9)[Newtown]
Pecks Pleasant 10
Row I I.
Baldwin 1
Seek no Farther 2 x 3 (No. 2 grafted with the
Lady apple from Aunt Ellen, Chillicothe.) [written sideways, along right edge]
White Pippin 4 x 5
Belmont 6 x 7
R.I. Greening 8 83 (8)
Row I I I.
Red Canada 1
Jefferson 2
Tulpahocken 3 x 4
Rambo 5
Twenty Ounce 6 - 7 83. (6) (7)
Belle Fleur 8 - 9
(*) No 1. Row I broken down by felling a tree on it 31. Dec. 75 — It had made a fine growth. Still lives 1882. Cut down 9

(19)
Row IV. Order of names reversed
Belle Fleur 8 - 9
Clyde Beauty 6 - 7 83 (7)
Munson Sweeting 5
Grimes Golden 3 - 4
Maidens Blush 1 - 2 83 (2)

Row V
x Lowell Benoni 1 -2 83 next S. Of pears (1) Benoni [crossed out]
xx Benoni [crossed out] Lowell 1 - 2. Strawberry 3 - 4
Red Astrachan [crossed out] 5- 6
Early Harvest [crossed out]

Next south of Pears E + W Row (see p 116)
Early Harvest 2 West part of Row
Transcendant crab E. " "
arly Harvest grafted 1 London Pippin + Canada Red p 130
Tallman Sweet old orchard 2d Row x 1876 Aug 28 The first apple is a fine Specimen of the Lowell.

x 6 April 1885 young Muchmore in presence of Scott, myself + Mr Green of Rawson, Hancock Co. Grafted the small red apple grafts from Mary N. Sherman of Norwalk see p. 161 — The Lady apple.
x 11 Apr. 1885 By the same grafted x a Benoni’s with "Early Joe" from Gen Mitchell.

1874 (6)
Plums
14 Apr. 74 Andy and Jackson directed by Lucy + self arranged a place on N. Side of garden West of privy where the plum trees could be con- fined in a yard with hogs there (Plums) N. Line of garden
We planted in a Row E. to W. as follows
1. Gage
2. Imperial Gage
3. Wild Goose [?] Dead — never showed life.
4. Yellow Gage Mistake. July 6 in leaving out!
5. Rein Cl [sp.—Reine]
6. Jefferson

Middle of next row south from E to W

Apples continued Apr 1885

11 Apr. Hyslop — best crop — on the 2d, 3d, + 4th tree from East end of row E. to W. along South Side of Main Walk E. To W.
11 Apr. 1st Lowell — with Whitney crab No 20 See pp. 162-130

1874 (18)
Peaches
April 14, 1874 set out as follows. Rows run East + West + begin at North side of Plot. Trees numbered from East end.
Row I
Susquehannah 1
Foster 1
Crawford late 1
Heath cling 1
Crawford early 1
Row II
Old Mixon free 2
Large Early York 1
Club House cling 1
Red Creek Melocoton 1
Row III
Barnard rare ripe 3
Old Mixon Cling 1
Kensington 1
IV Row
West End Hales Early 1

Downings Mulberry 2

Cut them all down without a crop about 1885 — [written on the side of the page]

1874 (230)
Currants
April 15, 74
Cherry North Row 24
Versailles next to North row 24
What is it? 24
Blackberries
Kittatinny North Row 24 Dug up [written later, sideways]
Lawture " 24
Raspberries
Davisons Thornless 12
Mammoth Cluster 12
Philadelphia 12
Goosesberries Dug up [written later sideways]
Houghton 12
Downing 6
Grapes
Row I from N. To S. East of main drain
1 Delawares 10
2 Concords 10
3 Rogers No. 4
II Row W. To E. from main drain or way
1 Catawba 8
2 "Rogers 19" - 6
III Row in front of ice house
1 Catawba 3
Have done well except Catawba — [written sideways]

1874
Strawberries

Planted in a bed next East of the Aspar- agus bed. Rows 3 feet apart. Plants 1 foot Begining on West side

Row I + Pt of II
Jucunda 50 Dug up [written sideways]

" II + III
Russel’s Prolific 50

IV + XIII inclusive 400 Wilson
500 Dug up [written sideways]
Done April 18, 1874

Note as to page 112. The row South of main E+ W. Path West of main N + South path begin at East end + go West. 2 Transcendent crabs 1 Loudon Pippin + graft of Hyslop crabs 1 Benoni + "
Then the Lowell in 5th Row (p 112)

1874 (27)
Deciduous Trees
Planted 20 April 1874 by self, Jackson + Whitmore viz. North side Spiegel Grove near where Jefferson street + John Street strike the Grove
1. English Elm 6 feet high
1. Butternut near John St. next East of Elm
1. Chestnut " " of Butternut

East side of Grove along Buckland Avenue beginning at North East corner
1. English Elm near N.E. Corner
1. Norway Maple next S of Elm
1. Chestnut near Maple west of it
1. Norway Maple farther South
1. Chestnut " "
1. English Elm South of gate

In the fruit garden North side 3 Almonds in a line with South row of Plums and apricots. viz 1 East of apricots + 2 West of same. 3 Filberts next west in same line.

West side of fruit garden 5 Spanish Chestnuts along west line begin at N.W. corner Nix3 English Walnuts next south of Nix

1874 (12)
deciduous trees Continued
of Chestnuts

1 Butternut at S.W. Corner Good [written later, sideways]

3 Butternuts on South Side " [written later, sideways]

3 Chestnuts South by East of garden in the woods. Staked

3 American Elms in a row along John St. about 18 feet inside the Grove, one west of the English Elm + 2 East of it.

3 July 1874. The handsome Elm N.E. of House measures in circumference beginning 3 feet from the ground west side 8 feet 9 inches. Stuck pen knife in the tree when the Tape line at 3 feet allowed the ring to touch the ground. Placed the ring on the Knife and stretched tape line around the tree + back to the knife. The tree is no doubt growing, but it is the same on Sept 1 ‘72. Error somewhere.

17 July 81— Measures 9 ft 3 in. — by Rud + self — Sunday P.M.

1874 (25)
Evergreens
Planted 22 April 74 self, Jackson + Andy
I group near Buckland Av. front of House
Norway Spruce 4 Large
" 2 Small
White Spruce 2 Large
Hemlock " 3 Smallish Did well [written later, sideways]
II
Group near Buckland Av. North East
Austrian Pine 2 Large
" 1 Small
Scotch pines Did well [written later, sideways]
White Pines (American)
III
On West side of fruit garden
1 Black Spruce largish
1 Hemlock " "
" " Smallish Did well [written later, sideways]
Scotch pine
Norway Spruce

IV. Around Old Ned’s Grave
2 Arbor Vitea
2 Hemlock — 1 on grave (held by Fanny)
1 very small do

1874
28 April 1874 — intended to plant small Hemlocks near south west pt. of Kitchen to screen
woodyard from the front but today it is Snowing Snow + Wind Snow two to three
inches
deep !! Thaws a good deal. Thermometer at 9 A.M. 34E.

7 May saw the first peach blossoms on a tree in Ballville Village. Also a few in lower garden. All of my trees seem to be alive + doing well. All mulched with chip dirt — old manure, or saw dust.

8th May planted 100 asparagus in bed 22 x 52 5 rows 4 feet apart. Plants 2 ½’ apart in the
rows. Bed deeply trenched (18") well rotted ma-nure and cleanings of hen coop + salt

22 June Thermometer 92E hottest day so far this year. A Delaware grape near the N. end of Row I (see p 115) seemed dead—no signs of life. I made a path directly over it — saw dust path. Today saw that the late rain had brought out leaves—I dug it up with as much earth as I could + planted it East side of stable door. South side of stable. Will it live? No it was rooted up by the dogs!

1874
7 July 100E by our Th.!
11 " fires in the parlor ! Th 60
23 June hottest — day — 94E
28 " hot, hotter, hottest — 96E at 3 P.M. Good rain in June — several swashers —

a quart or so of Strawberries on the new bed! good for spring bed —

An arbor just S.W. of office by the side of the wild grape vine and the four trees, with two or three posts with bark on. The wild vine, a couple of Virginia Creepers or so, a Wisteria, the creeping vine in the old flower garden, + a few rapid- ly growing vines of good grapes, etc etc will make a good rustic bower.

Put next Spring, Va. Creepers on ice house, + on trees, + rustic arbor. On dead tree N. of house + on stumps. A Dwarf Horse Chestnut like Mr. Ficks

A fine Creeper 2d row West of John St. garden gate—do on fence next to wheat field. Taken up in July x planted by the "Boffine Bower." a failure died.

Plant a row of best hedge evergreens in front of garden. 4 feet from fence, center of each bench.

Mem. Planted Brandywine and p.502 Antwerp Raspberries. Cultivator no 1124

Why not plant raspberries + the like in rows among the pears + other trees to re-main a few years? over the tile drains? Done. Nix

Cucumber Tree Rose of Sharon

Rosa Vigilius

1874. During Aug + Sept have put down a drive from N.E. gate of the grove to the House. 5 or 6 inches macadam + 2 or 3 inches of river sand — coarse — from near Moores Mill. Also a five foot path from front-door to house gate in front. Only a thin layer of sand (2 inches or 3)

1874 (148)

Oct 26 + 27 Ruddy + Ed Walters planted as follows
Raspberries
I Row E. to W. nearest North side of garden + barn
27 Clark 104 feet

II Row E. To W. next South of I
18 Franconia + the rest of row
14 Davis Thornless at West end

III Row next South of II
26 Philadelphia
15 Davis Thornless at West end

Currants

East side of main path from barn door. South transplanted Apr. 1879 to South side walk out [crossed out]
North End of Row |of South of chicken yard
8 black Maples
6 Versailles 1 White

South East of Row transplanted Apr 1879 to12 Cherrys North end West side of main path 12 [crossed out] 8 White

Over (drawing of pointing finger)

1874 (33)
Oct 26-7

Grapes
I Row begins at East + West path, East of main path + beginning at South End.

Croton (1) |
Lady (2) |
Martha (3) | 7
Concord Chasselas (1) |
Salem (3) |

Martha (2) Apr 1879 and Row III (8) Apr 1879
II Row runs parrallel with I + next
East of it Begins at South End

Old grapes set out in spring (2)

Rogers No. 5 (3)
" " 9 (3) And Delaware (9) (Apr 1879.
III Row runs E. To W. North of middle path + from Main N. + S. Path towards barn begin at West End transplanted Apr 1879
to Row II
Croton + old (2)
Rogers No. 30 (3)
" " 15 (3)
Row IV runs N. + S. of middle path
Delawares (3) at N. End
Concords (old) (6)

1875 April (8)

3d Saturday
Took up with Jimmy from old flower garden 1 Mock orange bush, 1 Forsythia do + 3 Roses — planted the Roses in the Ear [sic] right of path as you enter the small gate, and the other bushes in the first clump S.E. corner old F. Garden.

4th Monday
Mr. Burgoon brought + heeled in a lot of fine Elms and Sycamores for Street trees and Place.

10th Saturday. During my absence Lucy has had lilacs etc. etc. transplanted to front jungle S.E.C.

Today planted from Mr. Day’s Nursery as follows. viz
Right side of Main gate, as you go out.
1. White Pine grew well [written in later]
1. Scotch "
1. Hemlock "
Left side " "
1 Hemlock "
1. W. Pine
1. S. " "
At bend of Main drive near gate right side 1 W. Pine + near old gate 1. Hemlock
Total 8 Evergreens from Day.

(51)
(Morning cloudy +shining by turns)
1875. Monday 12th April, Lucy and I with "Jimmy" spent the day planting flowering shrubs. We put out around + near the house in groups + otherwise, rather hap-hazard as follows from Nursery of R. G. Hanford, Columbus viz
12 Roses Varieties
2 Snowballs
6 Lilacs "
1 Clematis
4 Honey Suckles
4 Mahonias
3 Spireas
1 F. Almond
1 Fringe
2 Weigelia
2 Rhododendrans [crossed out] (not here)

13th Tuesday. Snowing about all day. 34E + 4 to 6 inches fell. Melted about half as it fell. Sowed clover + timothy, + a little red top in bare spots on the lawn.

14th Apr 32E + Planted with Mr. Burgoon as follows viz 15 Elms along Buckland

Apr 1875 (60)
Av. — a few of them poor on South St. 4 Sycamores (S. S. John 2 at June and Jeff — 1 at Main gate + 1 inside at old gate) 2 Cotton Wood N. S. South St. each side of the run; 1` Paw paw in grove N. of House; abt 30 maples John St, South Street + First Avenue.

15 Planted 6 Sugar Maples in a group N. Side of grove near John St. West of gate from Mr. Burgoon. 12 Va Creeper 1 E. S. of stable; 1 near P + ice H; 1 oak W or wood pile; 1 oak in orchard; 1 Bower; 1 oak S.W. of H.; 2 oak front 2 do

16th Cold snow squall, + alternate bright Clear skies all day 24Eto 28E + all day
Planted a 12 to 14 feet Austrian near woodpile 3 Austrian pines also + 4 arbor vitae near the route to stable N. S.
17th 16E + ground white — wintry aspect — 6 A.M.

17th do do to yesterday as to snow squalls but Colder 16E + A.M. and 23E to 24E + during the day—Trans-planted three sickly Hemlocks from near S. W. Cor. of office to West of orchard, + two crab apples 1 ½ or 2 inches in diameter from north side of John to Grove. Doubtful as to the Experiment. Also shrubs from old flower garden to jungle + a vine to the Bower. Too cold

1876 — April (87)

for other planting.

18th Apr Sunday 12E + (!) bright + ground white with snow. A charming winter morning. The storm over. Will plant tomorrow if we can get below the frost!

19th Planted 19—Norways from Muchmore on N. S. Grove along John St. + 15 N. + P. in the clumps started, and 6 of them on my lot in Cemetery + 2 on uncles. total from Muchmore today = 34
Also 6 Hemlocks from Day — 3 near small front gate. 3 N. Side Grove at Jefferson + John.

20th Planted 33 Evergreens from Mr Days Nursery viz 29 Hemlocks W. of orchard; groups S. E. of flower garden + at small front gate. 2 arbor vitae at garden house (2 of the Heml do) + 2 Pines Total 33 from Day.

21st Planted from Mr Days at Eds + Jimmys 4 Hemlocks + 4 Arbor Vitaes — Evergreen = 8 also 6 Poplars S. W. of Grove on 1st Avenue.

Planted from Mr Muchmore’s as follows

(124)
20 Norways N. S. Grove + 3 Austrian = 23. also 7 cherry near garden house. 1 near wood pile here — 16 apple in garden + 2 in orchard — viz
4 Bellefleur, 4 Seek No Further, 2 W. Pippin,
2 Russett, 2 Baldwin, 2 Grimes Golden, +
2 Red Astrachan.
25 Blackberries, West side of Raspberries.

Also of Mr. Burgoon 11 Weeping Willow sticks—no roots — a gift — 3 at Bower — the rest in the ravine.

22d Planted 2 Scotch + 2 Hemlocks on approach to Uncles grave — 1 Fir + 2 Hemlocks at Old Neds + 4 Hemlocks on our lot. Also 19 Scotch + Austrian outside of circle North of House for a screen, or shelter against the North wind. All from Mr. Day viz 30 also gift from John 3 California Whirtleberries on N. Row of Raspberries at West end. + 1 in jungle east of new flower garden. + 1 cherry in place of dead pear — + 1 cherry at east of "Mem" I establish two jungles for all sorts of flowering plants + shrubs. (1) in front of old flower garden on the slope S. E. To keep out dust. + (1) as a screen between lawn + garden.

1875 April (60)

23d Planted 20 Norways along John St. near Bettys, North side of Grove, + 1. do West of orchard. all (21) from Day. Also Wistaria (6). Va. Creeper (6), 2 Magnolias, 2 dwarf Horse Chestnut, roses, lilacs, etc etc

26th Planted Rhododendrons (6) in a bed (circular) near small gate; left of path as you enter.
Magnolias (2)

May 4 Planted Balsum Firs, Pines + Norways (9 from Muchmore) in a group in Harrison Road South of house.

(Apples)
May 6. Mr Colby + Mr Tyler grafted into the old Early Harvest near rear of woodpile; + onto the young E. H., and in old orchard grafts from J. T. Kellum [?], Ripleyville, H[uron?] Co. of London Pippin + Canada Red Streak

8 " Put out white + yellow Willows from the Powder Mill ruins of Austin Powder Co. Cleveland.

13th Put out yellow Willow twigs in the

1875 (121)

South of the house. Cut from the willows in the Spring lot. Also 15 Norway Spruce North side of the oval N. of H. and 1. in the pine group near barn. — all lived — Yesterday paid Burgoon 118 $ for putting out 98 trees about 65 Soft Maples 21 Elms, 6 Sugars, 6 Sycamores — trees boxed; mulched etc etc

18th May planted on John Street row 13 Norways from Muchmore — all lived —

(apples)
Early this Spring moved the Garden Cottage from where it stood, near the hill where Old Ned is buried, to the South East Corner of the premises on Buckland Avenue + First Avenue in Glenns Springs.

Nov. 27 Planted in Bed west [crossed out] south of chicken yard. 100 walnuts 1st Row and West ½ of 2nd without shucks remainder with them. Squirrels eat them all
1 May 76 All dug up by Red Squirrels. The Cunning rascals got down to each one of them. I planted from a walnut pile the yearlings in the same bed. or two years from seed — no a year and a half from seed

1876 (60)
Dr[?] Webb took charge of the im-provement of the place this Spring.

15 April. About twenty five Sugar Maples planted viz 12 to 15 on John Street North of grove — 3 in Grove near John St. in one group. 2 ditto in another, and 10 in the S.W. part of the premises.

30 April. Came up from Columbus the 28th. Dr[?] Webb is putting out shrubs in groups + laying out the garden. Peach trees and Cherry have been in blossom several days. Two peach trees in the new fruit garden are gay with bloom also a few of the Cherries. Took up about 50 yearling Black Walnuts + gave directions as to bed etc them[?]: 1. May, 76 Dug out forty holes for Evergreens.

May 1, 76 paid Burgoon 51 $ for 26 sugar Maples, 34 soft maples boxed, + a few Elms — Chiefly on John Street + in clumps in the grove.

(98)

May 2 — 1876. Planted 14 Scotch Pines and 10 Austrians near John st line 43 Scotch, 8 Austrian, 11 Norways and 2 Hemlocks West of Orchard.
May 3 — 1876 Planted 5 Scotch, I Hemlock and 1 Balsam south of house.
1 Austrian near gate, 2 Scotch
2 Norways, 1 Balsam and 1 American
Pine opp Dillon"s.
3 Scotch and 4 others Hemlock and
White Pine near stable.
2 enormous Austrian pines on
either side of the path near
small gate as an experiment,
also 1 large round Norway
Spruce near circle and
1 small Norway near small gate
Total bought of Day 21 Austrians,
27 Scotch and 1 American Pine.
15 Norway Spruce and (2?) Balsams.
Total 66

(Trees + shrubs to date 1309) [penciled notation]
[entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

Aug 4 '76 Apples wanted Early Joe
Strawberry Pear[main?]

Last of April 1877

[Hand drawn chart of orchard planted to apples]
(See print out for copy)

Purchased from Muchmore and planted on the flat near Tyler’s — last of April 1877 — see above, 21 Baldwins, 7 Seek No Furthers, 7 Russetts, 6 Pippins, 5 Greenings, 4 Belleflowers and 4 Kings. Paid $20.85. W.C. Hayes

[entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

[Hand drawn chart of orchard planted to apples]
(See print out for copy)

[Entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

Strawberry Bed
Plants from the Agricultural Department Oct. 1878 Planted in beds running North and South at the Southwest corner of Main North and South path and Middle East and West path.
1 Bed. just West of Main N.+ S. path.
135 Captain Jack, in three rows.

2 Bed. West of 1 Bed.
117 Forest Rose, in three rows.

3 Bed. West of 2 Bed.
119 Great American, in three rows.

Blackberry Bed.
Kittatinney or Lawton or both, from old beds planted Apr 15 — 1874 near peach trees, Oct 1878 planted in one row running East and West and South of new vegetable garden on the Glenn property.

Raspberry Bed.
Brandywine from the Agricultural Department Oct 1878, planted in one row running North and South and forming Eastern boundary of new vegetable garden on Glenn property.

[Entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

Grapes
1 Row. East of North and South path and North of East and West path.

Beginning at the North end.
3 Rogers No. 15. | Set out 26-27 Oct. 1874 see p. 124.
3 Rogers No. 30 | Transplanted 1876 to Old Oak
2 Croton. | and to present place April 1879
2 Martha. Purchased from Muchmore April 1879
| Salem. 3 |
| Concord Chasselas 1 | Set out 26-27 Oct. 1874
7 | Martha 3 | 10 vines in all.
| Lady 2 | 7 present 3 unaccounted
| Croton 1 | for April 1879
17 Vines in Row 1.

2. Row. Parallel to Row 1 and East of it.
Beginning at the North end.
9 Delaware. Purchased from Muchmore Apr 1879.
| Rogers No. 9 - 3 | Set out 26-27 Oct. 1874.
7 | Rogers No. 5 - 3 | 8 vines in all. 7 present
| Concords 2 | and 1 unaccounted for Apr 1879
16 Vines in row 2.

[Entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

Grapes.
3 Row. East of North and South path and South of East and West path.
Beginning at the North end.
10 Concords. Transplanted probably from hillside
10 Concords. Purchased from Muchmore Apr 1879.
20 Vines in Row 3.

4 Row. Parallel to Row 3 and East of it.
Beginning at the North End.
2 Concords |
2 Delaware | Transplanted, probably from hillside
16 Concords |
20 Vines in Row 4.

Catawba
3 Catawba on Arbor near Ice House. Cuttings from old Catawba vine near John St. House, sent from Washington D.C. by R.B. Hayes M.C. in 1866 or 1867.

[Entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

[blank page]

April 1879

W.C.H. with Henry Pfister — Gardener at the White House — Washington, Jimmy, Sam. Lilly and Bill Tyler, set out shrubs, received from Washington or transplanted from large bed near little gate or from the border around the flower garden.

"1." Clump of trees. South of Main drive and between the House and Old Maple.
2 Sequoia |
1 | Agricultural Department
1 Magnolia lenne |
2 Mountain Ash. — Little gate.
2 Flowering Cherry — Flower garden.

x x x x x

"2." Group of flowering shrubs. East of "1."

"3." Group of flowering shrubs. East of "2."

"4." Group of flowering shrubs. East of Old Maple.

[Entry made by Webb C. Hayes]

April 1879
"5." Group of flowering shrubs. Opposite "4."

"6." Clump of Lilacs. Buckland Ave. near large black Oak. White, Persian etc.

"7." Group of flowering shrubs near Old Buckland Ave. gate, in front of house.

"8." Group of flowering shrubs, opposite Dillon’s.

"9." Clump of Holly stumps, North side of Ravine. Presented by Admiral Ammen U.S.N. (ret) from his farm at Ammendale Md. near Washington.

Gum Tree from Bethlehem Pa. Southeast of house near fence.

Flowering Peach from flower garden near Small gate Buckland Ave.

Transplanted large Wisteria from South side House to large White Oak, Southeast house. White topped by Beck Oct 1878. Wisteria reached the Eaves.

[Entry made by Web C. Hayes]

May 1879
W. C. H., Jimmy and Sam. Lilly.

Planted two clumps of Evergreens at the intersection of the John st + Main drive.
1 Clump on either side of John st drive.

2 Norway Spruce, 1 Balsam, 1 American, 1 Scotch and 1 Austrian Pine in each clump.
x x x x x x
6 Norway Spruce on John st drive near Stable.
x x x x x x
6 Large Arbor Vitae — 8 to 12 ft. high opposite Stable.
x x x x x x
15 small Arbor Vitae planted in a row around the wood pile.
x x x x x x
All the above from Nursery of John Day on account. 21 Arbor Vitae, 10 Norway Spruce, 2 Balsam, 2 American, 2 Scotch and 2 Austrian Pines.

Around Graves of Whitey and Old Ned 8 small Arbor Vitae, new variety, also from John Day.

May 1879
Clump of Evergreens opposite John st gate. 5 Norway Spruce, 3 Hemlock + 1 Arbor Vitae
x x x x x
1 Row on either side of John st drive near gate. 6 Norway Spruce in each.
x x x x x
3 Arbor Vitae and 1 Hemlock from Old Ned’s grave to row of Hemlock’s West of grounds.The above trees transplanted. The Norway Spruce every one in the row along John st near Main Gate.
x x x x x
Purchased from J. D. Muchmore. 24 Norway Spruce, planted 9 ft apart along John st fence opposite John st house.
x x x x x
1 Baldwin to replace dead one in orchard near Tyler’s.
x x x x x

May 1879
Planted 36 Tulip trees on either side of John St. drive. Trees from farm of Mr Smith, the Congressional Gardener and a few from Admiral Ammen, Washington.
x x x x x
2 Clumps of Laurel from farm of Mr Smith, Cong. Gardener, 1 on North + 1 on South side of the Ravine.
x x x x x
Several hundred Myrtle from Washington set out on South side of the Ravine.
x x x x x
Several hundred English Ivy 31 plants set out on North + West sides of Birchard Library Building.
x x x x x
1 Clump of Rhododendron from Parkersburg Va., set out North side Ravine.
x x x x x
1 large Wisteria root from Washington Set out East side of Boffin’s Bower.
x x x x x
2 Japanese Shade (tree) from S. M. Shoemaker, Balto. Md. 1 North + 1 South of House.

May 1879
Received from Francis Pentland, Lockland, Ohio
12 Weeping Willow, 2 Cutleaved Birch,
2 Purple Beech,
2 Aristolochia Saphosi — Dutchmans Pipe
All of the above planted in Circle
South of House except 10 Weeping Willow.
Also from Agricultural Department
1 Cryptomeria japonica = Japanese Ever.
1 Upright yew = Taxus baccata.
1 Eeronimus
1 Chinese Juniper = juniperus chinensis
1 Libocedrus decurrens (prob. dead)
Also from Washington
1 Tulip
1 doz Mahonia roots
Also transplanted
2 stunted Norway Spruce.
2 Mahonia from N.E. corner of House.
1 Juniper from Small gate, originally
from Dr Johns’ Fremont Ohio.
x x x x x
6 Weeping Willow near Ravine
x x x x x
6 Walnuts near new vegetable garden.

4 May 1881
x The first fruit blossom is on a cherry tree in the old garden South of the House.
Trees generally in excellent condition. The Catalpas all seem dead. The holly and the laurel are living, barely. The European Chestnuts seem dead " English Ivy [ditto] a few of the tulip trees " [ditto] Some of the White Pines are yellow and seemto be failing. One cut leaved birch — dead Two or three Copper beeches dead

The beautiful red bird and his mate appeared this morning in the Grove S.W. of house.
9 May 81. Besides the red birds yesterday + the day before the oriole appeared. Today in addition to cherries (10) + Plums (4) the pears, peaches, + the Transcendant Crabs are —in full bloom. Therm. 70E at 6 A.M. !

The Early Harvest West of woodpile — grafted [lo?t] is full of blossoms. 10 May, 81 The two transcendant Crabs ditto The golden beauty, 2d from N.W. Corn. of orchard Pecks Pleasant — a few blossoms.

Red Astrachan rather full
No other tree in the new orchard is in blos-som.

10 May, 81 [G]ot 51 trees of A.B. McCoy of Graytown — soft maple — 11 to fill up places
where others died on the street. The rest inside of fence West side betw. Street trees.

Mr Custer, of Texas, put down today, 11 May 81, a sod of Bermuda grass sent by the
Mother of the late Gen Custer, in the circle South of House. He says it will grow + spread + be a beautiful lawn grass.

1882

4th March sowed Blue grass on N. E. Corner of Plat South of House.

21st Mch Th. 42E Also squally. Transplanted with a good ball of Earth our best Holly to N. E. Corner of Portico. Also one to S E Corner — with Japanese Evergreens — two near each.
Also a Walnut to near Buckland Av. N. of the Locust — Snowing while it was done.

30th Th 40E — 50+E at noon Planted Cherry s [crossed out] trees as follows—
2 Coes Transparent in place of dead in the Clothes Plat—
2 Yellow Spanish; N. E. Corn. Apple orchard
2 Napoleon B " "
2 Rockport East part of a new row betw 2 + 3d rows of A. O. in a row of Cherries E + W across the O.
2 Gov Wood next West in the row

5. Montmorenci next West in Row
4. Early Richmond next West in Row—
11. " " in a N + S row west of Grove and next East of land culti- vated by Apthorpe as a Garden Total thirty (30) Cherry trees planted

Transplanted two Norways that were South of House to a point one hundred + fifty Yds S. W. of House

The grass seed sowed on lawn South of House last fall begins to sprout.

31st Mch Th 32E A. M. Windy Transplanted two White Pines from Evergreen group near + N. E. of House to clump 100 yds N. E. on main drive. Doubtful as to living— Mulched with half rotted manure + leaves the cherries etc etc already planted. Mended fences.

1st Apr Th. 41 A.M. Clear + still P.M. 72E + windy— Transplanted in Cemetery from old Lot to the new one a White Pine 6 inches in diameter. I plan-ted it first on old lot 7 years ago. Now a beautiful tree— Will it live? Kramer, Kennedy, Hennessy and

1882
Rathbun, the new Superintendent think it will — Have also had planted on my Lot two elms.

Transplanted Seven Japan Evergreens to right Side of drive going West near S. E. corner of Gar-den. Also S. of Grapes in line with them the Japan deciduous trees or shrubs — beginning S. End near oak with 153 .

3d Apr. Transplanted between 50 + 60 Japanese trees + shrubs— The Evergreens placed near new drive South of house — deciduous South of orchard.

4th April A.M. 60E Noon 75E P.M. 50E with a N. Wind + a little rain. Transplanted the smaller Japanese Shrubs. Saw the buds of peaches red + swelling — almost ready to bloom in the low er garden!

5th Apr. 42E A.M. Rainy — cold Planted about 20 Walnuts N. Side of Grove. 2 Chestnuts + Walnuts (2) along Buckland Av. Finished transplanting Japanese shrubs. Planted the running vine on Wire over the

1882

East side of Boffon — and at the Stone pile in Ravine.

6 Apr 43E A.M. 72E P.M Planted N.E. of Grove 4 Catalpa Species[?] 16 Norway Spruces N or N.E. of Grove.

7 Apr 65E A.M. A Summer day — Wind S. Ellicott + Hennessy Planted about twenty Norway Spruce — W. of wood pile — extreme W of Place in line with the Lombardy Poplars (5) 3 around Graves of Old Ned + Old Whitey. etc etc..

8 Apr Th 43E — Wind N. Cloudy. I go to Chillicothe today — birthday of Uncle Scott.

27th Apr. Th 40E Planted two Norway Spruce on Cemetery lot

Since the 8th planted about twenty Norways + Hemlocks — 3 H. 17 N.

Total trees planted this Spring about 120.

1883
8 April c inch ice this morning. The frost not all out of the ground. Today is spring like. If no change in weather will begin to transplant trees and shrubs this week. I send today for 75 new grapes [crossed out] currants

9 Apr Th 40E to 69E. Fine weather. Began planting. Transplanted rose from front of dining room to S. of chicken yard near gate. Also three walnuts from clump to row South of chicken yard. Put Entremets drain out of Wash-room + placed it South of Same out of doors. Pruned with Lewis Apthorpe vineyard on side hill.

10th moved line of shrubs near Boffin — rose bushes near the house to distant points. Going to remove a hemlock at End of long lane found in the shade solidly frozen ground. Ground frozen also near Stumpery.

11. 12. 13. Removing rose bushes — planting in rows South of flower garden and orchard The Japanese shrubs + trees. Not knowing names, sizes or nature of them I plant temporarily in rows Six feet apart and Six feet apart in the row. 20 to 40

1883
13th Ap. First Evergreens planted today by Lewis Apthorpe + Ellicott. Eight (8) Norways about 6 feet high. S.W. of kitchen close [crossed out] near to it, and western part of orchard. 8
14th Th 70E A.M. 85E P.M. A strong S. wind With 2 tr[?], who worked well, + Lewis + Ellicott raked + burned leaves. Parker and hands thoroughly under drain by tiling the garden patch S.W. of Grove.

17 + 18th during my absence Lewis + Ellicott planted a row of evergreens on West line of orchard

2 cherries—

Ap. 20 With Lewis planted climb[?] as follows
1 Dutchmans Pipe near Entrance to Boffin E. Side
1 " " South [Stumpery] [crossed out] side Verandah—
1 Bignonia radicans New[?] tall Stub
1 " Brick Stable Window N. End
1 " White Oak No 2 in orchard
1 " Stumpery
1 Honey Suckle Scarlet Trumpet Creeper S.S. Boffin
1 " Old tall Stub
1 " Aurea reticulata S.S. Stumpery
1 " New oak stub
1 Climbing Hydrangia at Bay Window
1 " Stumpery
1 Akebia Quinata "
1 " Boffin

20 Ap 1883. Vines Continued.

1 Honey Suckle Margneville Boffin
1 " Stumpery
1 " Halliana "
1 " " Boffin
1 M Monthly fragrant "
1 " Stumpery
5 Ampelopsis Brick Barn
5 " at Evergreens
1 Honey Suckle Chinese Stumpery
1 " " "
7 Varieties of Clematis Flower Garden
1 Balto belle Stumpery
1 Pride of Washington "
1 Prarie Queen near Elm South of house
1 " near low evergreen
1 Seven Sisters " Crab Apple E of E. drive
1 " " " Sassafras " "

23-28 April— cold weather. Absent in N.Y. During absence Lewis + Ellicott planted as direc-ted along north line of vegetable garden —+ west line 114 small walnuts (Black) grown by me from nuts — 2 Grapes—Golden Pocklington + 75 Currants in new rows—Currants 15 each, cherry, La Versailles, Victoria, White Grape, + Red Dutch—all two years old + from Stoves + Harrison Co Painesville also more Norways.

1883
6 May. Cherries in blossom at last. A few red buds on the peach trees. Plum trees in bloom. No pears or apples yet in bloom. Ate two Baldwins picked in orchard north of John Street last year. Both of good flavor. Kept in boxes in Cellar—no special care—

August planted "Sharpless" Strawberries (75) in bed in flower garden + 11 hills of "Agriculturist" + about 60 "Agriculturist" in bed west of Boffin.

11 + 12 Oct. Planted 2 Moores Early Grape West of Boffin—2 Clematis Jackma-ni blue South of Bay W. + 1 at S.W. pillar of Verandah; also (1) Ampelopsis V. West of Library; (1) N of Parlor Lib. and (1) at E side of stable
100 "Sharpless" Strawberries — W of Boffin + in flower Garden +
100 "Crescent" Strawberries in old bed W. of Grapes.
75 Raspberries near old beds, a Gregg blue; a Queen of the market red; a Turner red.

13 Oct. finish planting Raspberries.

No heavy frost yet !

Calladiums fresh + green!

1884
18 to 22 Mch. Th A.M. About 35E—Cloudy Ellicott + Sam Apthorpe are raking off the manure on lawn for twenty (20) yards, or so around the house N.E. + S. Will it improve the lawn? They raked together the manure + put it around the nearest evergreens. Watch the results.
1885 with good results
27 Mch. began to remove Japanese Shrubs + plants from the garden East of Grapes to
a Clump South of Raspberries + W. of main path. 28th ditto + 29th. about forty shrubs etc in all.

"Moved one ever green, injured by cows near main gate to John St. line .

"burned leaves + grass in orchard.

8th April—2 inches snow—trees white—wintry— Have moved shrubbery from S.S. of walk N. of flower garden to south side fence of chicken yard. Also one shrub in chicken yard. One Japan pear tree planted N.E. corner of orchard near ice house.
10 Ap Three Japan trees near main gate — Two on right of gate as you enter, one on left. Lilac bush South End of Grapes.

April 1884
10 Cold — threatening snow.
16th —with Fanny planted the first beech trees ever in the grove — Except water beeches. One near main gate—one on Buckl. Av. South of locust—one in clothes drying yard and one near Dr Webbs tree. Died .85

Also cut off twigs from the Napoleon—Washington weeping willow + put them in Nursery near South end of Main path from Stable South. 28 Ap. 1885 growing well.

30 April. The first three or four Straw-berry blossoms two or three days ago.

The Siberian Crabs west of grapes near Center of garden show leaves enough to make a shade — a few young cherries also well leaved out.

Ellicott transplanted ten or twelve trees so as to give a clear drive, almost a vista, next South of John Street evergreen screen East + West. The large trumpet creeper on old Stub still seems dead. The young one near the Stable shows little red buds. A dry, cold, but pleasant spell of weather the last week or two.

1884
2 May first [crossed out] Strawberry blossoms abundant. +3 " " a few Cherry, pear + plum blossoms. Buds appear on trumpet Creeper on Old Stub. 4 May Th 52 A.M. + raining (Sunday)

2 May Red birds, a pair — appeared in Grove be-tween house + main gate in old maple.

18 May — Summer weather 80E in shade P.M. Currants, strawberries, pears, Cherries + apples all have blossomed profusely + the promise for fruit is now excellent. Elm N.E. of Porch 3 feet from ground 9' 4 ½ inches.

The first + third Elms left side as you enter main gate are red, or Slippery Elms — the 2d is Swamp or Common Elm.

20 May. The beech in clothes yard is well leaved out— the beech on Buckl Av. is also in leaf. The one near main gate no leaves — near Dr Webbs tree none yet. All died .85
" " Giant Trumpet Creeper on old Stub alive up ten feet or so + growing fast.

1884
July 25. Two beech trees near main gate + on Buckl Av. are living the other two died, Not roots enough the cause. One Ampelopsis Veitcheii" West of Library wall af-ter growing well two feet was dug up by the young hounds Jove + Juno—the rascals! The A.V.Vine north of [beds?] library is doing well—two or three feet of the Stone wall.

28 July The Va creeper west of Library on wall has grown 2 inches a day since the first of July. Vines on Stable almost ceased to grow— on Stubs still growing. Akebid south end of porch grows three or four inches a day. Ampelopsis V. N Parlor Lib grows almost an inch a day. The Chinese Wistaria on old Stub will probably reach the top of the Stub next year. The Va Creeper on new stub has grown luxuriously this year — will be within a foot or two of the top soon.

Early apples have done well — viz Early Harvest, Primate (old orchard) + Benoni.

The creeper on new stub has reached the top with several shoots 25 Aug. 1884. The creeper

The creepers (Va) are all growing still whenever they get water; and some that are not watered. This mem 27 Aug. 1884

31 Aug. 84. The Va Creeper on the West Wall of my library has gone up over 11 feet during the months of July + August.

8 Oct Va creeper — Ampelopsis Veitchii, + other Vines are still growing Oct. 8. No frost yet. P Picking apples—a fine crop—many fallen. Tulpahocken look well but are worth little. Ben Davis—graft ? Yes, done 1885

6 May 1885— After picking over the remaining apples one or two barrels of sound + good Baldwins still remain.

1885
Muchmore
Raspberries 500
viz Cuthbert 2. 200 3 x 6
Turner 1. 100 "
Reliance 2. 100 "
Shaffers Colossol 3. 100 — 4 x 8

Currants— 100
White Grape.................25 4 x 5
2 yrs Cherry......................5........."......
Versailles ....... " ....... " .....
Grape [crossed out] Red Dutch " "

Black berries
Snyder 100.
K
[?] [crossed out]

Crab Hyslop 4 25 c

April 2 — first spring rain — Therm A.M. 7 oclock 46E + 2 P.M. 70E + a shower. After 3 hours Therm. 62E+.

" Rec’d 12 grafts of a small red apple [the Lacey apple] from Mary N. Sherman of Norwalk.
6 Apr. A warm morning, grafted them into a Lowell 2d tree S of E + W walk.

1885
11 April. Young Muchmore grafted today the 1st Lowell with Whitney Crab No. 20
" 3d + 4th Benoni with Early Joe from Gen Mitchell, Cols.
" 2d, 3d, + 4th trees East [crossed out] South Side of main E + W walk begin E end of row with Hyslop red crab.
" Ben Davis grafted into nos 1. 2. 3. + 4 in Row IV. See page 112.
" Gate apple into No 5 — Row V p 112

" 21 grafted Lady apple from Aunt Scott Cook Chililcothe in the East Transcendent Crab + in No 2 Row II a " Seek no further."

" 27. Planted 300 Snyder Blackberries South End of new garden 7 ½ rows
" E to W 7 x 4—

" 28 500 Raspberries next north of above 6 x 3 — Shaffers Colossol 100—Reli- ance 100 — Turner 100. Cuthbert 200, Currants 100—White Grape; Cherry; Versailles, Red Dutch Also 4 Hyslop Crabs—1. South of flower garden near new red stub—1 W. Of main N + S Drive " " " [near red stub].

1885
Apr 28 1 Hyslop Crab South of Vegetable garden— + 1 South [crossed out] near Lombardys E by N.

" " 4 Romanites 2 years old— a red Apple — small —Keeps late — to June it is said — 1. West of Main drive N + S near S. End W. Side; 1 S.E. of new Stub. 1 S.W. Corner of old garden near Buckl. Av.; + 1 near Buckl. Av. off. Dillons. All put in as orna- mental trees. I saw several Plates of these apples fresh + sound at the 66th I.O.O.F. anniversary in Croghan Lodge at banquet of " Daughters of Rebecca".

" 21—22d—23d Therm 80 to 83E + in the afternoon. Since cooler weather.

May 1. 2. 3. Therm 72E— slight frost.
" 9 First red birds this year.

" 14 Planted 4 Norway Spruce in N. W. Corner of vegetable garden from Muchmore. also 2 South of ditto on brow of hill.

First Plum, Cherry + Strawberry blos-soms on my grounds to day! 14 May. Therm 70E+

1885
8 June. First strawberries—only three or four reddish not ripe but eaten not eatible.

The hard winter has killed almost com-pletely the old Chinese Wistaria on the old stub + also the Giant Trumpet Creeper. The true vines for our climate are the Va creeper + the Ampelopsis V. All except Concords among the grapes either killed or injured.

4 July 254 roses in bloom and the Climber near South door. All vines growing well.

The new stub S.W. of flower garden is Completely Covered with Va creeper and it is the feature of my work.

The Ampelopsis V. North wall of Parlor Library has grown well—4 or 5 feet this year—23 Sep 1885 Ditto on West wall eight or nine feet.

Dutchmans Pipe South end of Porch, at Boffin, + on the first White oak South of house all grown rapidly this year Sep 23. See p 153 in 1883

Golden Pocklington bore a few delicious light green grapes. Sep 1885 See p. 154.

1885

Sep 23 Almost no apples this year — Belle-flowers the best bearers in all orchards — but very few.

Concord grapes abundant— a few Delawares—

The new stub beautiful with its abundant vines.

The old stub looks better than I hoped to see it after the hard winter. The Trumpet Creeper + Wistaria have gone up to within 10 feet of the top.

All grass + leaves green and abundant this year.

Strawberries + raspberries in abundance this year— Pears fair — grapes good other fruits a failure.—

Beech trees all dead except the one planted in yard for drying clothes and that one sickly— roots poor. See p. 158

Oct. 23d Th 7 A.M. 40E + No severe frost yet. Many Calladium leaves are still fresh + green. Japan Ivy on N. wall of library grew 3 to 4 feet in all directions. On West wall

1885
Japanese ivy, having more sun, grew 8 or 9 feet and is fresher looking. The Am ivy on this wall is almost leafless now. American Ivy on Stub near garden is b from top a bright scarlet—the bitter (?) sweet on the lower a is freshly green. The old Stub with its vines green yet. We gathered about 2 or 3 bbls of apples from all our trees. Mostly Baldwins + Belleflowers. Put in cellar perhaps 155 bushels potatoes.

15 Nov. The Cobea Scandans Vine is still green + fresh looking with a few blue flowers. Therm 30E + ice ¼ inch. The Japan ivy still clings to the house with its leaves many of them green + the rest

on the North side of a brick red color—on the West Side a dark metallic color.

1886
29 Mch. By Count today The Ever greens in the Grove 460

April 19. Planted two Norway Spruce— 1 near corner of old office building + 1 to complete circle west of Wood yard.

1886
April 21. Early cherry trees in blossom.

" 20. Planted Japanese tree with [cover ?] near Main Entrance—leaving out rapidly. (died)

April. 24. During the last four or five days the Plums, Cherries, Peaches, have come fully into bloom, and pears, + Crabs show opening buds

" 27. After many days of fine weather a shower last night. Several apple trees in bloom—others show buds, + a number will not be in bloom at all. This as to orchard W of house. Pears + crabs a beautiful show in full blossom.

May 1. Saturday. Early pears + cherries have dropped their blossoms. Apples a in full bloom. Strawberries begin to blossom. In the last week of April our potatoes and corn planted. Excepted the old potatoes for late use.

May 8. A little frost—no harm done here. All strawberries in full bloom—a great crop promised

1886

11 May The last Tree to put forth leaves is the English Elm near the Buckland Av. Gate S.E. of porch.

24 May. The Blackberries in new garden West + S.W. of house are beautifully in bloom.

26 " The Giant Trumpet Creeper + Chinese Wistaria both supposed dead are leaving out in a way to make me hope they are almost, if not altogether right.

4 June. Strawberries on the table for days

strawberries turn out well.

1. July Raspberries + Currants have been and are superb—never before so fine.

6 July. the first ripe blackberries—also early harvest apples on old tree back of wood yard.

July 5. 6. 7. Very hot in the 90s — up to 94 or 5 — 7th P.M. A North wind dropped the mercury 20E.

10. Red Astrachan ripe — rotten at core.

Pears — Early across John St — pulled early or

1886

they are rotten at the core—

Sept. 3 Grapes turn out well: Concord of course, Delawares, Marthas + Golden Pocklinton. Increase the last three (3).

In the spring planted 4 English Hawthornes— 2 white + 2 red — near Buckl Av in front of Porch.

11 Oct began picking apples. Belleflowers, White Pippins, Spitzenbergs + other fall apples first. All apples early ripe this beautiful year. The Baldwins fell off early.

Spring 1887 — April 10. Winter appears all gone. Belle Flowers kept as well as any. The dry fall was unfavor-able. Will pick earlier hereafter. Also keep in a cooler way.. The cellar with its furnaces is too warm.

1887
Graft the Primate (the N.E. Corner of John St orchard + the tree next South) into the two Lowells viz the 5th tree west of main drain + South of Long Vista + the tree next South of it.

Move the three (3) beautiful Japan flowers viz the staked plants.

The 4th tree West of Main drain is Excellent about Sept 1. graft from it in all small trees. It is a large old Stock Benoni?

Plant 7 or 8 trees in John St orchard. Win-ter apples preferred.
Wine Sap Spitzenberg
Pearmain Am.
Golden Russett 2 early Joe x
x White Pippin x
x Grimes Golden x
x Gate or Belmont 4 x
x Greening 4 x
x Primate 2 x
x ordered from Muchmore. 24 Feb. 87


Needed 4 to 6 Winter apples N. E. Part of [old] Cottage orchard
" 8 " 10 " " John St. orchard
" 4 " 6 Early + Fall Home "
16 to 22

The hardy vine with glossy leaves on Boffin + elsewhere is "Periploca Graeca"; called in English Syrian Milk Plant. or Milk Vine. It is a genus of the Asclepias, inhabiting Southern Europe, + consists of about six species of twining plants. The milk of P.G. a plant common in the Hedges of So Europe + innate of Engl. gardens. Has been employed to poison wolves. " [gardens] 1887 Dr Maynard Cleveland, O.

1 April 1887. Planted cherries [four trees a gift] from Fred G. Withoff of Dayton viz One (1) apple Yellow Transport near ice house + gas well N.E. Corner of Pear trees. Three (3) Peach in a row S. of Main E + W. drive, N + S

4 Blackberries Dew berries — the Climbing —on Grape row next west of Clothes lines — (Transplanted)

11 + 12 Apr. A.M. hot 76E + P.M. Cold below 6E Trans Planted Walnuts + Butternuts in figure of a Church — a Latin Cross West of large white oak on West Side of place, and along the West line — prob 40 or 50 in all. Attack on Sumter 26 years ago.

13th Ap. 24 Lucretia Dewberries next West of Boffin

1887

13 Ap. Temp 39E + at 7 A.M. Planted 2 American Mulberries — 1. next West of Currents 2d tree from N. End of row — near ice house + gas well. 1. East side of Clothes yard, West of old Wood yard. Died
14 Apr. Three sound apples left out of the many bushels put into my cellar. 2 Belleflowers + one Seek-no-further.

15 Apr T. 60E + Planted 2 Seederberg (cherries ?) Clothes yard N. of grapes W. of Boffin Died
" " 2 Sederberg (cherries ?) in the "Cherry Row "— (the 3d row E+W South of N. row of apples + pear orchard) 2d + 6th from E. End of row. Also 3 Downings Gooseberry in E + W Row next west of Drive South from near South end of drive; + 3 Industry Ditto Ditto
Taken away [written sideways] Gone [written sideways]
Also in same row 12 Lucretia Dewberries

Also 2 Niagara grafts + 2 Pocklington [ ?] of Grapes next West of Clothes yard. Also 2 Lady Apples (1) N.W. Corn of crossing of main path near Transcendent—Crab + (1) at Lightning tree. Also 2 Early Joe (1) between Quinces + Pears + (1) at Gas Well.

1887

Apr 15 Also [3] Downing Mulberries N.E. part of fruit orchard + (1) near Wild Mulberry in the old Cottage grounds. Also (1) tree, unknown, prob Mulberry, from Withof of Dayton.

2 Lombardy Plums planted in front of Chicken House.

16 April Home orchard 2[crossed out] 1 Primate (apple) in Transcendent Crab Row 5th trees beginning at East end.
1 Ditto Eastern tree in 6th Row begin at N.

1 White Pippin next N. of Primate
1 " " " S [crossed out]W. " "

1 Gate 7th tree in Transcendent Crab Row
1 " 10th " " "

1 Greening in 3d Row Home orchard 2 apple
" in the Row begin at N. End
1 " S. Of 1st Primate
1 Mann S of Greening

Old Cottage orchard
1 Gate N. end of orchard [crossed out] 2d Row from Buckland Av.

1887
1 Gate
1 Downing Mulberry 3d in 2d Row from from (sic) Buckl. Av.

1 " 7th "" ""
1 Mann (apple) 8 " " " "
1 " " 3 in 3d Row " " "
1 Gate 1 " " " "
1 " 1 6th " " "

30 Apr. No fruit blossoms of any sort yet. A late spring. Temp this A.M. 44E +
8 May Sunday. Abundance of rain lately. The cherries, pears, peaches + strawberries, plums are now in blossom. Apples have not yet blossomed out. A smaller crop than last year— "The off year". The Belleflowers promise best. Crabs show no blossoms Except the tops which are full! Season fully two weeks later than last year, but not so late as /85.

29 May first ripe strawberries — a few only —

31 " The Charter oak planted from pot South of flower garden near N.E. of Vine stub. The other planted in front of house near Napoleon Willow.

1887

Sep 24 — gathered apples — two baskets — less than half a bushel from the Home orchard — Canada red ? + Grimes Golden. From John St. Orchard a basket (1 Peck) of Belle fleur — ditto Fall Pippin — ditto Rambo — ditto Sweet— Six or Seven bbls of Baldwin (almost none last year) and two or three bbls. of King, N. Spy + all told. about ten bbls in all — a small crop but more than my neighbors.

17 Mch 1888. The apples, Baldwins etc did not keep well. All gone after Mid Winter. The Cellar probably too warm, but the apples were not in a condition to keep if well stored.

Mem of wants for 1888
Asparagus 200x x
Moon Vine from Vick 3 x
Concord Grapes 2 doz
Delawares 1 doz
Catawba 1 doz
Lucretia Dewberries 1 doz
Lombardy Poplars 3 trees
Geraniums ½ doz "RBH" — x
Hemlocks 5 —
Hollyhocks x

1888

Planted grapes Ap 21 N end of new vegetable garden South of high fence at N. end.
I Doz Delawares
2 Niagara
1 Doz Dewberry — Lucretia —
2 " Concord

27 Ap first hot day — 85 to 90 E + Forsythias in bloom!

30 Apr. Early cherries, Japan peach (?).

Last apple of /87 very good — Grimes Golden.

Have planted 6 hemlocks near main gate —1 Napoleon willow ditto.

Transplanted Dewberries + Grapes from West of Boffin to N. End of new vegetable garden.

5 May. The two red birds P.M. in the hickory N.E. Corner of porch + the oak near by.

Planted a few days ago Napoleon Willow near main entrance, + at Stone pile S.W. of house.

6 May, Sunday — Magnolia, Pa. Mt. tree, Forsythia, + bridal wreath in bloom. Also cherries, plums, pears, peaches. Redbud, Crabs wild + tame are not in bloom, but show the buds.

1888

7 May

Have set out Napoleon Willows — also put Japan plants in a row north side of drive South of orchard— Lady apples in Nursery (8) S.E. of orchard. A cold blizzard blowing all day. Will it blight or injure fruit?

10th Thursday — Dogwoods in bloom — Red bud of course + all early apples

14 Sep. First frost did not cut anything in Spiegel Grove. But around us + Especially on the bottoms was severe.

The first season I recall, Grass + leaves green + fresh all summer.

Stocks of corn in Vegetable garden 136' high

1889
Apr. Planted four plum trees from Muchmore + son in front of hen house — Six (6) Lombardy Poplars from Storrs Harrison, Painesville 4 for S. hill of Church + 2 on West line of premises. Eight (8) Butternuts on hill near the old Lombardy Poplars + 10 Ash on line of Street West of garden. Two Rows one either side of New Wash’g St.

1889
Sunday 21 Apr. Saw first fruit tree in blossom on the place — an early Cherry on side hill (S.E. side) S.W. of house 19 + 20 hot days 65E A.M. 75E to 80E at noon

Friday 26 Ap. We go to N.Y. Centennial today — Cold and Cloudy — The Cherries + Peaches in bloom — The Pears full of white buds —

21 June, after long spell of showery weather it seems to have cleared off Began to cut hay on lower meadow today. Early cherries eatable since the 7th

Planted cherry stones of — in row of grapes + dew berries N.end of vegetable garden

So far a Season favorable to growth of trees, grass, + flowers —

Our frost a few weeks ago did small harm. Cut the lower leaves of the Sycamores. Will it kill the branches, or will they leave out again?

21 June Lucy stricken with paralysis! Alas, Alas!

15 July — The large Stub aglow with the flowers of the Giant Trumpet creeper Raspberries + Currants still last in abundance. First dozen of ripe black berries.

17 Aug. The frequent showers have kept the lawn fresh + green all summer. The grass sown in July grows well.

1890

6 July. The old stub begins to show the flowers of the Giant Trumpet Creeper from top to bottom.

" The blue Clematis blooms beautifully. Mem — next year I must D.V. plant the white by its side.

" Must select two fine looking — the finest for our climate — trees for our lot in the Cemetery.

" This is our best year for grass, trees, + Vines. Spiegel never So beautiful as now. ! An unusually wet Season — a heated term — daily up to 92E+ for two weeks ending the 2d of July.

1890

To be done:
Graft the young crabs + perhaps other trees with at least two grafts each of
1. Mr. Baker early apple tree (Early Joe ?) corner of Birchard Avenue + Done
2. With Primate — Wine sap + Lady apple —
3. With Russett back of Cottage

3 Plant in Spring near porch "Moon" flower a vine. also at Boffin. Done

4 Plant at the old Stub — the stub with "the giant Trumpet Creeper, the blue Clematis — with care! Done

5 Plant a large number of Boston, or Japanese Ivy — North of house + on the West Wall of Library — a dozen or two. Done
6 2 English ivy in N.E. Corner of Library or Diningroom [crossed out] of parlor + Library — Done

1891

1. Plant two choice trees on our Cemetry Lot (Either English Hawthorne, or some more rapid growers)
2. Plant White Clematis where the blue will be in sharp contrast with them —

For Cemetery Lot White Hawthorne + pink? also Rhododendrens — a rod, or so, square — [this section is crossed out] The fall Yellow flowers?

Japan Ivy at barn. Moon flowers —

April 16 planted on Cemetery lot Mt holly + Japanese Evergreen.
" 20 first cherry + peach blossoms west of Home.

The Giant Trumpet Creeper on old Stub blossomed July 12 + was full more than two months —

Fruit falls early — but has been more abundant that was expected after the great frost 22 May!

Sep 22 - 25. Trimmed the large oaks and all fruit trees in orchard West of House!

1892

Plant, Miss Aver say a, four white or light colored Magnolias

12 Apr moved Japanese trees and badly poisoned, perhaps, by the tree.

1 May — first cherry tree blossoms down Town —

2 May plums and Cherries in Spiegel Show a few blossoms

Pages 184-214 are blank

Pages 215-219 refers to livestock

For 1884

Graft Early Joe from Mitchell on (?) In the spring. not done — grafted in Apr /85

For 1885

Madeira Vine a half dozen or dozen bulbs — one dollars worth.

Plant Early Joe apple at both Cottages + in Home orchard — or graft.

Plant Akebia + Cobaea Candens Vines at the South end of Verandah — also at stubs

19 Aug. Vines are for the most part still growing — Water + Sun seem to be to [crossed out] needed.

28 Aug. Plant in outer garden — large garden Currants, Blackberries, Raspberries etc etc in E. + W. rows next to brow of hill.

fall of 1883
For 1884
[crossed out]
3 = 105
Ampelopsis Veitchii. A hardy climber —
1.00
x Clematis Jackmanni (blue) large 1.00
" Star of India " not so good
1.00
x " Dutchess of Edinburgh white good
" perpetual white "
" rubro (red)
x Grape. Moors Early, 2 = 2.00

x Raspberry 2 doz Gregg blue 2.00
x " Queen of the market red[?] doz 1.00
x " Turner " 2.00
x Strawberry "
x Sharpless 2.00 per 100 Aug. Sept. Oct.
x Crescent Seedling 3.00 " " " " "
Andrew J. Thompson agt Greenwich, Huron Co. O. July 23d. 1883 To be delivered "in the fall".

Plant around Stumpery Va Creepers now at barn and house wh do not climb on brick walls.

Plant Ampelopsis Veitchii S.E. Corner brick stable West wall of library — and N.E. corner of ditto.

10 Oct 1883. Picked apples in old orchard (4) four (!)bushels Baldwins + Bellefleurs.

1883 Spring planting trees, shrubs etc etc

1. Two Evergreens — Norways S.E. of House beyond first clump of oaks etc etc

2 Vines (a variety) on Stumpery; on new Oak stub; old oak stub; Boffin; E side of stable;
Honey Suckles
Dutchmans Pipe 100 Aurea Reticulata 20
Va Creeper that will cling to a brick wall Chinese Twining 20
Ampelopsis Quinquefolia 25 Halliana 25
Tricolor 25 Magnevillea 20
Veitchii 35 Monthly fragrant 20
Scarlet Trumpet 20
Ivy Trumpet Fl 25
Giant English

Myrtle 10.

3. Fruits. White Winter Pippin grafts or trees (2)

4. Flower Seeds = Castor Beans, Hollyhock 10 + 15

29 Sept. 1881
Improvements

Take up drive South of house + make walks to the new drive. done

Put a stone walk to + around the new cistern + into drive to stable. done

A tanbark walk on right side of drive to main entrance. done

Put stone from drive South of house on walks nearest house.

1.20

Sept. 17, 81 —
For Planting Spring of 1882
12 Delawares ordered from Muchmore (Planted)
24 Catawbas " " "
24 English or Sour cherries "
12 Tartarean "
12 Sweet "
2 Capital Weeping Elms for Cemetery "
Plant fast growing shrubs for a jungle in the
Ravine on Buckland Avenue, "
Myrtle in spots.
Bermuda grass on Graves of "Old Ned + "Old
Whitey. Done
Plant the Walnuts except three of the best — leave them where they are now. Done

For 1882 - 1883

At least one dozen Virginia Creepers that will cling to brick wall to plant
1. In angle N.E. of Library 1
2. On Blank wall west of Library 2
3. On East side of stable 3
4. " North " " 2

Plant to run up the pillars of the Verandah Honeysuckles, Scarlet Trumpet Creepers, Dutchmans pipe, Wistaria, Virginia Creeper, Canary bird flower, Climbing roses, + Morning glories.

Cilicica or Grecian Fir. $2.00
Nordmaniana or Silver Fir "
Pendula or Weeping Hemlock.
Macrophylla or Murrays "
Pinas Cembra or Swiss Stone Pine
Excelsa Pine Bhotan
Retinospora, lycopoides, Retinospora Japan.
Aurea golden
perefera, Aurea Golden Wm Henry Smith
1882 — 1883 Continued
Myrtles North of House on Main drive,

Move all but three or four of the Walnuts in the fall to the Ravine

4 English Hawthornes — 2 White
2 front of lawn

Scarlet Trumpet Creeper on East Side of Boffin at Entrance.

List of trees etc etc for planting 1879
Canadian, "Snow Apple" 2
Dutchmans pipe, vine
[crossed out] 3-6.
Japanese shade tree
[crossed out] 3-6.
White birch -cut leaf
[crossed out]...........2.
Tulip trees
[crossed out]....................6-12.
California giant sequoia
[crossed out].........6.
Strawberry apple.........................................2.
European larch.............................................3.
Myrtle ivy
[crossed out] Vinca major & minor
Early Joe......................................................2
Pearmain......................................................2
Weeping willow
[crossed out] 6 to 12
Purple Beech
[crossed out] 2 to 4
Plant all young Walnuts + chestnuts
[crossed out] 30 or 40
Virginia Laurel
[crossed out]
Ilex, holly
[crossed out]


(24 May 1879) 1880
Linden 6 [crossed out] American 6, European 6. Weeping 4 x
Horse Chestnut 12 (inc red + white) x
Catalpa 6 x White Birch cut leafed x
Large leaf Poplar 4. x Maiden Hair —
White Locust 4. x Sequoia —
Sycamore maple 4. x
Silver Willow 4. x
Smoke tree 3. —
Snow drop 3. —
Purple Beech 3. x
Pea Locust [crossed out] family — Species Mimosa 3x