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No. 4 APRIL 2002

PONCA: Fred Smith, Joe Gunn, John Premaux

The Lucy Webb Hayes Photograph Collection (Hayes-PH-2) contains more than three dozen stereo view cards sent by Army Captain Richard H. Pratt, Superintendent of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, to President Rutherford B. Hayes and First Lady Lucy Webb Hayes in 1879. Commercial photographer John N. Choate produced the stereo view cards for Pratt. The images are among the earliest photographs taken at Carlisle and can be identified by the yellow or orange cardboard mounts with "Photographed by J. N. Choate" amd "No. 21 West Main Street, Carlisle" printed on the right and left sides respectively.

SIOUX: (Pine Ridge) Children of American Horse and High Wolf: Bear Donít Scare, Lone Hill, Singer, Frank Twiss, Daisy Glade, Lucy Day, Mary Bridgeman

President Rutherford B. Hayes threw the support of his administration behind Captain Richard H. Pratt's efforts to establish the Carlisle Indian Industrial School at Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Pratt believed that through a curriculum of English, training in the trades and the white culture, Christianity, citizenship, and patriotism Indian boys and girls would soon learn the "white man's way" and take their place in mainstream American society. During its existence (1879-1918), Carlisle served as a model for other boarding, day, and off-reservation schools funded by the federal government.

KIOWA: Tonadlema, Son-ty, Kah-ah-do, Joshua, Kawboodle, Cute, Etahdleah

Pratt hired local photographer John N. Choate to photograph students in their traditional dress upon their arrival at Carlisle. Later, Choate photographed the same students in white man's clothing. For Pratt, the "before" and "after" images served as visual evidence of the program's success in assimilating Indian students. Pratt sent photographs to Christian reformers, Hayes administration offcials, congressmen, and others who believed that Indians could be "Americanized" through education.

By April 1881, Choate had photographed eighty-nine students individually or in groups. He produced sets of stereo view cards as well as cabinet cards and boudoir size (5 1/2" x 8") albumen prints.

Richard Tritt, "John Nicholas Choate: ACumberland County Photographer,"
Cumberland County History (Winter 1996) 77-90

The list below includes the names (as they appear on the images) of all identified students in the images presented to President Rutherford B. Hayes and First Lady Lucy Webb Hayes during Hayes' term in office.


George Walker

John Renville

Edward Upright

Nancy Renville

Emily Le Framboice

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Good Voice

Bull Man


Looking Woman

White Woman





Peter Charko

Rosebud: Children of Relatives of Black Crow

Plenty Aunt

Strikes the Enemy

Passes through the Enemy

Rain Water

Pine Ridge: Son, Niece, and Nephew of American Horse

Bear Don't Scare

White Man

Stands Looking

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Big Star

Hemy Thigh

Frank Yellow Bird

Youmg Bird

Little Girl

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Geese


White Man

Little Man

Hawk Charging Daylight

Kills Without Wounding

White Whirlwind

Yellow Ear


White Horse

Children and Relatives of Fills the Pipe

Makes Trouble in Front

Rums in the Clouds

Crockery Face

Yellow Lodge

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Chief Quick Bear

Wants to be Chief

Kills Plenty

Kills the Enemy

Paints Dust

Interpreter Tackett and Children of Spotted Tail


Stays at Home

Little Scout


Talks with Bears

Red Road Rosebud: Children and Relatives of High Bear

High Bear

Yellow Jack

Yellow Hair

Pretty Woman

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Iron Wings

Red Medicine

Bull Man

Mrs. McKenzie

Looking Woman

Pine Ridge: Children and Relatives of
American Horse and Black Bear Chief

Cut Ears

Cloud Shield

Packs the Dog ~

Stands Looking

Lucy Day

Daisy Glade

Rosebud: Chief White Thunder's Son and Sister-in-law

Knocks Off

White Cow

Rosebud: Chief Iron Shell's Children and Relatives


Short Leg

Runs After The Moon

Her Pipe

Looking Woman

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Whirlwind Soldier


Kills Without Wounding

Running Horse

Big Boy Earth

Pine Ridge: Children and Relatives of Black Bear Chief

His Shield

Makes Himself Run

Takes His Own

Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Chief Blue Tomahawk

Joe Taylor

Strikes First



Rosebud: Children and Relatives of Coarse Voice

Little Wolf

One That Kills 7 Horses

Wind Blows

White Whirlwind




Buckskin Jim





Albumen Print (51/2" x 8")

David, son of Blue Teeth

Nathan, son of Standing Cloud

Marshall, son of Bad Milk

Pollock, son of Spotted Tail

Hugh, son of Whirlwind Soldiers, grandson of
Spotted Tail

Albumen Print (51/2" X 8")

Alice, daughter of Lone Bear, Pine Ridge

Rebecca, daughter of Big Star, Pine Ridge

Ressetta, Capture in Mexico by 4th Cavalry

Harriet Mary, Nez Perces, Bald Head's Camp
Oakland Agency #9;

Mabel Riown, Kiowa Agency, Indian

Albumen Print (51/2" X 8")

Reuben, son of Quick Bear, Rosebud Agency

Bernard, son of Ring Thunder, Rosebud


John Renville, son of Gabriel Renville,
Rosebud Agency

Horace, son of Coarse Voice, Rosebud

Rufus, son of Black Crow, Rosebud

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