Inauguration to Easter Sunday, 1877
For nearly four months after Election Day in November, 1877, no one in the United States was sure who would succeed President Ulysses S. Grant as Chief Executive - Governor Rutherford B. Hayes, a Republican, of Ohio, or Governor Samuel J. Tilden, a Democrat, of New York. The uncertainty came from contradictory reports sent in from four states: Florida, Louisiana, Oregon and South Carolina. Each had filed two sets of electoral returns. In such unusual circumstances, who was to decide which of the contested votes could be counted: the Senate, which was Republican, or the House, which was Democratic? The matter was critical, and time was of the essence. All of the electoral votes in the four contested states were needed by the Republicans for them to win by just one vote; the Democrats required only one of the doubtful states to secure a majority.
A special Electoral Commission of fifteen members - five each chosen from the House, the Senate and the Supreme Court - was set up by Congress on January 29, 1877, to solve the problem. The Commission’s decisions could only be reversed by concurrent action of both houses. On January 31, the Commission’s membership was made public. Young Webb Hayes, who was helping his father as a secretary, and meantime was following closely the events in Washington, told the Governor, “In Washington, the bets are [now] five to one that the next [President] will be Hayes.”
Congress began to canvass the electoral vote situation on February 1, but the final count did not conclude until the very early morning hours of March 2, almost at the expiration of the legislative
session. On February 28, the vote of the last bitterly contested state - South Carolina - was awarded to the Republican slate. Governor Hayes now began to feel confident that his election was imminent, and he started preparing for the trip to Washington. Meanwhile, on February 20, President Grant had invited the Hayes family to the White House for dinner on the evening of Saturday, March 3, and to stay there as official guests until after the inauguration ceremony on Monday noon, March 5. On the 23rd, Governor Hayes officially accepted the dinner invitation but declined to be a house guest.
When Hayes and his party boarded their train in the Columbus depot around noon on March 1, only four days prior to the inauguration, great political uncertainty still existed. The count was not yet complete, and some of the Democrats were striving to filibuster beyond Inaugural Day. Threats were made against Hayes’ life should he even attempt to come to Washington. But this did not deter the Ohioan from his plans. Despite the danger involved, he made up his mind to travel openly on the regularly scheduled train, following the Pan Handle route of the Pennsylvania Railroad. One concession though, in the interest of security, was to keep secret his arrival time in Washington. As an added precautionary measure, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company dispatched a single engine ahead of the regularly scheduled train to make sure that no one had tampered with the tracks.
Because of the intense pressures upon him from all sides throughout the contested election period of four months, Governor Hayes was unable to do his normal amount of diary writing; he made only about a dozen entries in the entire month of February, and thereafter wrote nothing until the middle of March. The following synthetic document is a composite record of daily events during the month of March,1877. Based upon contemporary newspaper accounts and correspondence, it also includes Webb C. Hayes’ brief diary which he abandoned on March 20, the day the President’s second son became 21 years of age.
▪Thursday, March 1, 1877. Columbus, Ohio. Morning. - Governor and Mrs. Hayes and children, Webb, Fanny and Scott, in open carriages, were escorted by the Columbus Cadets and the military company of the Agricultural College, led by the Barracks Bank and a parade of about 500 persons, from the Governor’s mansion to the depot.
12:55 P. M. Governor Hayes and family boarded special cars on the regularly scheduled train over the Pan Handle route to Baltimore and Washington, by way of Newark, Coshocton, Newcomerstown, Dennison and Steubenville, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Altoona, Marysville and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; and Baltimore, Maryland, to Washington, D.C. The train consisted of Engine No. 12, John Rullman, engineer; one baggage car, three Pullman cars, and one Pennsylvania railroad car, number 120 - a brown colored coach with “Pennsylvania” painted in big letters on its sides, with “a sort of balcony at the rear.” Two of the cars were furnished by Thomas A. Scott, President of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
Boarding the train with the Governor and Mrs. Hayes were relatives, friends and Ohio legislators. Relatives were Mrs. Hayes’ brother, Joseph T. Webb, of Fremont; General and Mrs. John Grant Mitchell, and daughter; Emily Hayes Platt and her brother, Rutherford Hayes Platt, of Columbus; Frank Hickok, son of William C. Hickok; William J. Gilbert, St. Louis, Mo.; and Thomas Gaylord McKell, Chillicothe, Ohio.
The Governor’s intimate friends accompanying him included General and Mrs. Ralph P. Buckland, Fremont, Ohio, his former law partner; Colonel and Mrs. L. C. Weir, and daughter Neva Kate, of the Governor’s staff; Captain Henry C. Corbin, U.S.A., from the Columbus Barracks; William Henry Smith, formerly Secretary of State under Governor Hayes, Emma Foote; Mr. & Mrs. John W. Herron; Mr. & Mrs. George W. Jones, of Cincinnati; Lieutenant William H. Turner, U.S. Navy; John W. Andrews; Mr. & Mrs. William K. Rogers; Ex-Governor E. F. Noyes, Columbus; and General Robert P. Kennedy, Bellefontaine; and others.
Between 30 and 40 members of the Ohio Legislature were also of the party. These included Charles H. Grosvenor, Athens, Speaker of the House; Everett Bogaddus, Huron County; James M. Dalzell, Noble County; Thomas J. McLain, Jr., Chairman, Finance Committee, Trumbull County; John C. Entrekin, Ross County; and others.
Newspaper men with the party were Chauncey Newton, Cincinnati Enquirer; George Perkins, Cincinnati Times; A. M. Snow, New York Times; B.J. Loomis, Cincinnati Commercial; and Harry Ogden, Frank’s Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.
As he boarded the train, Governor Hayes spoke briefly to the assembled crowd. The band played “Auld Lang Syne” as the train pulled out of the station.
At Newark, Coshocton, Dennison and Steubenville, large crowds with bands held demonstrations as the train reached those places. As the train headed toward Steubenville, the Governor received and talked with Attorney General William H. Hunt and Cyrus Bussy, President of the Board of Trade, of New Orleans, Louisiana; and ex-Congressman John M. Nulta, of Illinois.
After dark, the train left Ohio and began the night journey across Pennsylvania.
▪Friday, March 2. Enroute. - Between 4:30 and 5:00 A. M. at Marysville, near Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania, the train stopped to receive a telegram from Secretary of the Interior Zachariah Chandler to Governor Hayes. Governor Hayes was awakened by his aide, L. C. Weir, accompanied by James M. Dalzell, and the telegram read to him. The Secretary announced that Congress had just completed the electoral count and had declared Hayes to be the next President of the United States. After receiving the news, the Governor turned over and went back to sleep.
9:50 A. M. The train arrived in Washington from Baltimore at the Baltimore and Potomac depot, corner 6th and B streets. It was raining. Governor Hayes and party were met at the depot by ex-Governor of Ohio William Dennison, now District Commissioner; Senator John Sherman; General W. T. Sherman; and about two thousand persons who were curious to see what the new president looked like. Fifty policemen were about the depot, under command of Major A.C. Richards, Lieutenant Kelly and Captain Brock, to keep order if necessary. Governor and Mrs. Hayes and family were taken by carriage to the home of Senator John Sherman at 1323 K Street, N. W., where they breakfasted, and where they would remain as guests until the inauguration. Fanny and Scott Hayes, accompanied by General and Mrs. John G. Mitchell, went to the Ebbitt House, where they had rooms.
Late morning. Governor Hayes, Senator Sherman and Webb Hayes drove to the Executive Mansion to call on President Grant. Cabinet members were assembling and President Grant introduced them and members of his staff to the President-elect. Governor Hayes has a conversation with the President for about 20 minutes and their talk concerned the political situation and the recommendation of the President that Hayes take the oath of office on Saturday evening, March 3, prior to the day fixed for the inauguration. This course of action was urged by the Secretary of State Hamilton Fish. Governor Hayes invited President Grant to remain at the White House after the inauguration for al long as he remained in Washington, but the invitation was turned down.
12:30 P. M. Governor Hayes, Senator Sherman and Webb Hayes left the White House in a carriage for the Capitol.
1:00 P. M. Arriving at the Capitol, the Governor’s party was ushered immediately to the Vice President’s room where they held a conference with Senator T. W. Ferry, Vice President Pro Tempore. This was followed by a brief reception of numerous Southern Congressmen including John H. Reagan, Texas; Ben H. Hill, James H. Blount, and Milton A. Candler, Georgia; and others. Introductions were made by Vice President Ferry. Republican Senators in considerable numbers also called. The subject discussed with the Vice President concerned the procedure of taking the oath of office. The Vice President’s suggestion was that, in view of the circumstances, the oath should be taken prior to the expiration of the present administration.
2:00 P. M. Governor Hayes left the Capitol building by carriage and returned to Senator Sherman’s residence for a reception given by the Senator to the visiting Ohio delegation of legislators, and many others, which lasted until a late hour. An Illinois delegation also called to see the President-elect, to support John A. Logan for Secretary of War in the new Cabinet.
Dinner: Senator Sherman invited a few friends to meet the President-elect for dinner. Among those present were Secretary of War James Donald Cameron and Robert G. Ingersoll, of Illinois.
▪Saturday, March 3. Senator John Sherman’s. - Governor Hayes received callers most of the day. He wrote in his diary [March 14]: Saturday and Sunday [I] saw Senators and Representatives and others, and [received] many suggestions on the Cabinet. [James G.] Blaine urged [William P.] Fry[e]. [Hannibal] Hamlim [of Maine was] much vexed and grieved when I told him I couldn’t appoint F[rye]. Blaine seemed to claim it, as a condition of good relations with me. [James Donald] Cameron & [John A.] Logan, greatly urged all day. I told C[ameron] I could not appoint him. Too many of the old Cabinet had good claims to remain, [and] to recognize one without appointing more than [one] would [not] be advisable. . . .
Horace V. Redfield, correspondent for the Cincinnati Commercial, who had accompanied Governor Hayes in his campaign of 1875, was in the crowd of called. “I went around to pay my respects to Governor Hayes . . .and found about forty on hand. . . There was a constant stream of
visitors coming and going. . . . Who should come in but the entire Louisiana Returning Board - [J. Madison] Wells, [Thomas C.] Anderson and G[adane] Casanave, and L[ouis] M. Kenner. They had a few moments quiet conversation with the Governor . . . .When there was a slight opening in the crowd, I paid my respects . . . and we had a moment’s conversation on the ‘Bill Allen campaign’ of 1875….”[Cincinnati Commercial, March 5, 1877, p. 5].
Birchard A. Hayes, from Harvard Law School, and Rutherford P. Hayes, from Cornell, the Governor’s sons, arrived in Washington this day.
Afternoon. The President and Mrs. Grant’s personal effects were removed from the White House.
7:00 P. M. State Dinner at the White House for President-elect and Mrs. Hayes, given by President and Mrs. Grant. Immediately prior to the dinner, the oath of office was administered to President-elect Hayes in the Red Parlor adjacent to the dining room. Present at the brief ceremony were Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, who administered the oath to the President-elect; President Grant and one of his sons. The seating arrangements for the dinner included President and Mrs. Grant; President-elect and Mrs. Hayes; Colonel and Mrs. F. D. Grant; Jesse Grant; U. S. Grant, Jr.: and Mr. and Mrs. Algernon C. Sartoris; Webb C. Hayes; Senator and Mrs. John Sherman; Vice President-elect William A. Wheeler; General and Mrs. John G. Mitchell; and Colonel Thomas L. Casey. Other guests were ex-Postmaster General and Mrs. John A. J. Cresswell; Secretary of the Treasury and Mrs. George S. Boutwell; Attorney General and Mrs. Alphonso Taft; Secretary of the Navy and Mrs. George M. Robeson; Postmaster General and Mrs. James N. Tyner; Secretary of the Interior and Mrs. Zachariah Chandler; Secretary of War and Mrs. J. Donald Cameron, and Miss Cameron; Mrs. Lot M. Morrill; Chief Justice and Mrs. Morrison R. Waite; Senator Newton Booth, of California, and Senator William Sharon, of Nevada.
Following dinner, the Hayes left the White House for Senator Sherman’s, and the Grants went to the Capitol to witness, hopefully, the official end of the 44th Congress, which, however, did not finally adjourn until 12 noon on Sunday, March 4th.
▪Sunday, March 4. Senator John Sherman’s. Morning. - President and Mrs. Hayes, with Mrs. John Sherman, attended services at the Foundry Methodist Episcopal Church. Following services, the Hayeses returned to Senator Sherman’s and remained these the rest of the day. Many senators and representatives called, including Senators James G. Blaine and Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine.
12:00 noon. The House and Senate of the 44th Congress adjourned sine die without passing the essential Army Appropriation Bill.
▪Monday, March 5. Inauguration Day. Morning. - The day began with cloudy and cool weather, with indication of rain or snow; air raw. Military and civic organizations began taking up lines of march preparing to form a grand inaugural procession which was to begin at the Washington Circle, and would accompany President Grant and the incoming President from the White House to the Capitol.
10:00 A. M. In a closed carriage, President-elect Hayes, accompanied by U. S. District Commissioners William Dennison and S. L. Phelps, and Congressman James A. Garfield, arrived at the White House from Senator Sherman’s residence. They were ushered into President Grant’s private parlor, where President Grant joined them. They waited here until time to join the procession to the Senate wing of the Capitol.
10:20 A. M. Vice President-elect William A. Wheeler arrived at the Executive Mansion in company with Senator Thomas C. McCreery, member of the committee arrangements, joing the party in the President’s parlor.
10:30 A. M. Leaving the Executive Mansion, the Presidential party of six carriages joined the procession to the Capitol, led by Colonel Fred Grant and Colonel Amos Webster, in full uniform, on horseback. President Grant’s carriage which contained the President, President-elect Hayes and Senator Justin S. Morrill, committee on arrangements, was accompanied by a bodyguard of twelve men in civilian, on foot.
Leading the procession to the Capitol was a stray dog which had gotten imprisoned in the lane between the two lines of spectators on the Avenue, adding humor for the spectators.
11:30 A. M. The inaugural procession from the Executive Mansion began arriving at the Capitol.
12:00 Noon. The senate galleries were filled. President Grant with the incoming President waled down the main isle of the chamber, accompanied by the committee of arrangements. They were escorted by Sergeant-at-Arms John R. French and took seats in front of the Clerk’s desk, with their backs to the presiding officer. Organization of the Senate began under the proclamation of President Grant. Senator Thomas W. Ferry was elected President Pro Tempore, and new senators whose titles to office were uncontested were sworn in. William A. Wheeler, newly elected Vice President, and President of the Senate, spoke briefly, and was administered the oath of office as Vice President by Senator Ferry.
Deputy Sergeant-At-Arms James I. Christie announced the order for groups to proceed to the platform for the inauguration ceremonies.
12:45 P. M. As President-elect Hayes reached the inauguration stand there was five minutes of deafening cheers from the large crowd. Oath of office was administered by Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, after which Hayes delivered his inauguration address,, reading from a small manuscript book. He spoke in a tone audible to about one-half of those assembled about the Capitol steps. At the conclusion of his speech, cannon boomed forth a salute, which terminated the exercises. The procession reformed to escort the new President and ex-President back to the White House, and the procession then broke up beyond 18th Street.
2:15 P. M. The Presidential party and escorts arrived back at the White House where all parlor doors had been opened. Secretary of Navy and Mrs. George M. Robeson and Secretary of War J. Donald Cameron were there to receive the incoming President and party. A luncheon, compliments of Mrs. Grant, awaited them in the family dining room. Present at the luncheon were President and Mrs. Hayes and daughter Fanny; ex-President and Mrs. Grant, Colonel and Mrs. Fred Grant, U. S. Grant, Jr., and Jesse Grant; Secretary and Mrs. George M. Robeson, Secretary of Interior Zachariah Chandler, Secretary of War J. Donald Cameron; Senator Justin S. Morrill; Colonel and Mrs. Thomas L. Casey; and the District Commissioners, William Dennison, S. L. Phelps and J. H. Ketcham; and some others.
The White House was decorated in flowers, two particular arrangements being outstanding - an eagle arrangement from S. W. Twombly & Sons, florists, Boston, placed in the center of the East Room; and a pyramid of flowers in a very large basket.
After luncheon, the Grants left the White House for the home of Secretary of State and Mrs. Hamilton Fish.
5:00 P. M. Blue Room, The White House. Members of the Ohio Legislature who had accompanied the President to Washington, called at the White House to pay their respects. They were soon joined by a host of others, forming a very large crowd.
6:30 P. M. A torchlight procession assembled at the City Hall. Organized by the Central Republican Committee, the procession included many bands and was largely supported.
7:40 P. M. The torchlight procession departed from the City Hall on its route about the city.
9:00 P. M. Willard’s Hotel. A reception was given to President and Mrs. Hayes by the Columbus Cadets, under General C. C. Walcutt. The committee of arrangements included ex-Speaker of the Ohio Legislature George L. Converse, Speaker Charles H. Grosvenor, General William T. Sherman, Judge William Lawrence, and other well-known Buckeyes. Large crowd.
William K. Rogers, the President’s former law partner, was appointed the President’s private secretary.
▪Tuesday, March 6. The White House. Morning. - Numerous delegations called upon the President. They came from Pennsylvania - the Fencibles, led by Congressman William D. Kelly; 140 members of the Hartranft Club of Philadelphia; from Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, Wisconsin; and a delegation came from the Senate, headed by Senator Oliver P. Morton, to announce that the Senate was in executive session.
Individuals came in large numbers. These included Frederick Douglass, to pay his respects and to introduce friends; Senators Henry L. Dawes and George F. Hoar, Massachusetts; ex-Governor Henry Clay Warmoth, Louisiana; ex-Congressman Stephen W. Kellog, Connecticut; and many others, some of whose names were recorded in Webb C. Hayes’ diary.
The President through his Private Secretary, William K. Rogers, made public the following rules pertaining to callers at the White House:
1. On Cabinet days, no visitors will be received except Senators and Representatives between the hours of 10 A. M. and noon. Callers who come only to pay respects may be received during these
2. On non-Cabinet days, Senators and Representatives may be received between 10 A. M. and 12 noon, and general visitors, on business, by card, between 12 noon to 2 P. M.
12:00-2:00 P. M. Cabinet Meeting. President Grant’s Cabinet members; all present including Secretary of Treasury Lot M. Morrill, quite feeble.
By invitation of the President, Congressman Randall Lee Gibson, of New Orleans, Louisiana, called to discuss a district attorneyship of Louisiana.
6:00 P. M. Dinner.
Evening. The President held lengthy conferences with Vice President Wheeler, William M. Evarts, Stanley Matthews, Carl Schurz and Senator John Sherman relative to Cabinet appointments. Mrs. Hayes received many callers including Senator and Mrs. Timothy O. Howe, Justice and Mrs. Samuel F. Miller, Mrs. W. T. Sherman, Senator and Mrs. Henry B. Anthony, Governor and Mrs. William Dennison, Mrs. David Davis, and others.
9:00-10:00 P. M. The Amphion Glee Club, Columbus, Ohio, was received by President and Mrs. Hayes and their guests, and sang numerous selections in the corridor opposite the Blue Room.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Delegations from Wisconsin, Illinois, New Jersey, Penn[sylvani]a, Tenn[essee], N[orth] Carolina, Missouri, Michigan, Maryland. Cabinet meeting of old Cabinet. The following gentlemen called: Vice Pres. [William A.] Wheeler, [William M.] Evarts, [John] Sherman. [Carl] Schurz, [D. M.] Key with Col. [A. J.] Kellar. Gen[eral]s [W. T.] Sherman, [W. S.] Hancock, & [Alfred H.] Terry with Staff. [Representative J. A.] Kasson of Iowa, [Representative John] Hancock of Texas; [C.] Irving Ditty & J. L. Censor of M[arylan]d; Lev Bagley of Mich[igan]; Hartranft Club of Phila[delphia]. Gentlemen from Cincinnati. Senator [James W.] Patterson of N[ew] H[ampshire]; Judge Wm. Johnston of Cin[cinna]ti; Fred. Douglass; S. A. Hurlbut of Ill[inois] ; J. A. McDonald of N[orth] C[arolina]; Gov[ernor Alex. H.] Rice of Mass[achusetts]; Senator-[elect Alvin] Saunders of Neb[raska] [and] Senator A[lgernon] S. Paddock of Neb[raska]; Senator [Richard J.] Oglesby of Ill[inois]; T. B. Keogh of N[orth] C[arolina].
At six o’clock Hon. Wm. Henry Smith, Col. [Henry C.] Corbin, W. D. Bickham & wife, Lt. [William H.] Turner, U.S.N., & others; [Mr. And Mrs. John W. Herron, Miss Emma Foote, Miss Lucy Hayes Platt, William McCrary and General Robert P. Kennedy] took dinner with us.
Father, Mr. Herron, H[orace V.] Redfield of Cin[cinna]ti Commercial & I drove to [the] National Hospital. Many friends called in evening.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 6 - To Steward (cash), $15.00.”
▪Wednesday, March 7. Morning. - Among the delegations calling upon the President was one from South Carolina consisting of ex-Governor B. K. Scott, formerly from Ohio, an old army comrade of the President’s; Generals Samuel McGowan and Joseph B. Kershaw, Judge T. J. Mackey and Senator T. J. Robertson, to urge an immediate recognition of the Wade Hampton government in South Carolina. Another delegation represented some of the Indian tribes of the Indian Territory, with Colonel William P. Ross of the Cherokee Nation, spokesman; and Congressman John R. Lynch led a delegation of black citizens from Mississippi.
Mrs. Hayes gave a reception in the Library to her former classmates at the Wesleyan Female College at Cincinnati, including Mrs. Charles Nordhoff.
Ole Bull (Ole Bornemann Bull, Norwegian violinist) and his wife, stopped at the Willard Hotel, called upon the President to congratulate him upon his inauguration, and to invite him to a concert in the evening. The violinist was accompanied by his manager, Maurice Strakosch, and Prof. Widdows, and were introduced to the President by Senator Timothy O. Howe. The President and Mrs. Hayes promised to attend.
Henry B. Banning, of Ohio, had an interview with the President in regard to an extra session of Congress.
Culver C. Sniffin, private secretary to President Grant, was confirmed a paymaster in the Army and was transferred to duty in the War Department.
1:00 P. M. the President signed his nominations for the Hayes Cabinet and the nominations were placed before the Senate by Vice President Wheeler, as follows:
William M. Evarts, New York, Secretary of State
John Sherman, Ohio, Secretary of Treasury
George W. McCrary, Iowa, Secretary of War
Richard W. Thompson, Indiana, Secretary of Navy
David M. Key, Tennessee, Postmaster General
Carl Schurz, Missouri, Secretary of Interior
Charles Devens, Massachusetts, Attorney General
2:00 P. M. President’s Reception for the ladies and gentlemen of the Diplomatic Corps. The President and Mrs. Hayes were assisted in receiving by the Secretary of War J. Donald Cameron and Miss Cameron; Secretary of the Navy and Mrs. George M. Robeson; Postmaster General and Mrs. James N. Tyner; Attorney General and Mrs. Alphonso Taft; Secretary of the Interior and Mrs. Zachariah Chandler. Presentations were made by Sir Edward Thornton, British Ambassador.
Evening. The President and Mrs. Hayes were entertained at the dinner given by the Secretary of the Interior and Mrs. Zachariah Chandler.
The Ole Bull Concert at Lincoln Hall was attended by President and Mrs. Hayes, who arrive late. The Hall was crowded. The President found in his reserved seat, at the front, the little daughter of Colonel G. A. Steward; the President held her in his lap through the evening performance. Appearing with Ole Bull were Tom Karl, tenor; Mlle. Isidore Matiniez, vocalist; and S. Seigling, piano soloist and accompanist.
▪Thursday, March 8. 10:00 A. M. - The Columbus Cadets band was received by the President and Mrs. Hayes in the East Room; the members came to say farewell on returning to Columbus. General C. C. Walcutt made introductions. Following handshaking, the band played “The Sweet By-and-By” as the members departed.
Senators, Representatives and delegations and others, in large numbers, called upon the President. Congressman Harry White came with a delegation from Pennsylvania; John H. Gear, a delegation from Iowa; and a delegation from Louisiana consisting of Governor J. Madison Wells, General T. C. Anderson, U.S. Marshall John R. G. Pitkin and John Rey. Among the crowd of individuals who came to see the President were:
Senator James L. Alcorn, Mississippi; J. G. Cannon, Illinois; Zachariah Chandler; Hiram Price and Rush Clark, Iowa; Charles Devens; Senator Stephen W. Dorsey, Arkansas; M. H.
Dunnell, Minnesota; E. J. Ellis, Louisiana; William M. Evarts; C. J. Faulkner, West Virginia; James A. Garfield, Ohio; R. L. Gibson, Louisiana; Stephen A. Hurlbut, Illinois; John W. Johnston,
Virginia; W. D. Kelly, Pennsylvania; Jefferson P. Kidder, Dakota; W. M. Levy, Louisiana, Senator John A. Logan, Illinois; John R. Lynch, Mississippi; George W. McCrary, Iowa; Samuel J. R.
McMillian, Minnesota; J. H. Mitchell, Oregon; C. E. Nash, Louisiana; Carl Schurz, John Sherman; W. S. Shallenberger, Pennsylvania; James N. Tyner; William A. Wallace, Pennsylvania; William
Colonel Henry C. Corbin, 24th Infantry, U.S. Army, was assigned to the President for temporary duty at the White House.
The President’s son, Rutherford P. Hayes, returned to Cornell University.
Mrs. Hayes, in the Red Parlor, entertained Mrs. Oliver P. Morton and a delegation from Indiana, among them being Mrs. James N. Tyner, Laura Ream (correspondent), Mrs. W. R. Holloway, Mrs. E. R. Mincar, Mrs. S. M. Parker, Mr. and Mrs. P. E. Studebaker, Mrs. E. D. Campbell, Mr. and Mrs. M. Trimble, and Miss Dunlap. “I had the good fortune to be present at a private reception given by Mrs. Hayes to Mrs. Morton,” wrote Miss Ream. “We were ushered into the Red Parlor where she received us with the cordiality of an old acquaintance. . . . She seated us by the windows opening upon the lawn. . . . She has quite original manners, a frank and pleasant voice and what she says is to the point and well expressed.”
12:00 Noon. The White House crowded with callers and the President held a general reception for a short while in order to give the callers a chance to see him.
Afternoon. The Senate in executive session confirmed the President’s nomination of Senator John Sherman as Secretary of the Treasury, by a vote of 37 to 11. Those voting against confirmation were Senators James E. Bailey, Tennessee; Thomas F. Bayard, Delaware; Lewis V. Bogy, Missouri, Richard Coke, Texas; Augustus H. Garland, Arkansas; Isham H. Harris, Tennessee; Frank Hereford, West Virginia; Samuel B. Maxey, Texas; Eli Saulsbury, Delaware; Allen G. Thurman, Ohio; and William P. Whyte, Maryland.
3:00 P. M. A delegation of black ministers was received by the President who came to congratulate him and to submit a petition supporting the appointment of Sayles J. Bowen as District Commissioner.
8:30-10:30 P. M. The President’s Reception for the Army, Navy and Marine Corps at the Executive Mansion, was held in the Blue Parlor. General W. T. Sherman and Admiral D. D. Porter made the presentations to the President, and Colonel Thomas L. Casey made introductions to Mrs. Hayes. Assisting Mrs. Hayes in receiving were Mrs. William D. Bickham, Mrs. John W. Herron, Miss Emily H. Platt, Miss Emma Foote, Miss Nannie Jones, Mrs. John G. Mitchell, and Mrs. L. C. Weir, Attorney General Alphonso Taft was the only member of the Cabinet present.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Mr. Sec’y Chandler; Ex Gov [blank] [were the special callers]. In the evening a reception was given to the Army & Navy and [their] ladies. It was a very brilliant gathering.
Considerable opposition was manifested to the New Cabinet yesterday [by the Senate] and the nominations were referred to the appropriate standing committees. This is something very unusual. Finally to avoid trouble in making up these committees, Mr. [John] Sherman, who was chairman of the old finance committee, was confirmed. No action was taken on the other nominations. The Press of the country speak very favorably of the Inaugural [address] and also of the proposed Cabinet. The South is particularly pleased. Some Southern papers have said “Actions speak plainer than words” in referring to the Inaugural. The appointment of Senator [David M.] Key [of Tennessee] meets this.
White House expenses account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 8 - to Steward, cash, $20.00.”
▪Friday, March 9. 10:00-12:00 A. M. - Delegations received by the President included one from Nebraska led by Senator Alvin Saunders. Senators, Representatives and others calling upon the President included: Senator Blanche K. Bruce, Mississppi; General Benjamin F. Butler, Massachusettes; William Aldrich, Illinois; David Davis, Illinois; N. C. Deering, Iowa; Rush Clark, Iowa; William M. Evarts; William P. Caldwell, Tennessee; David M. Key, Tennessee; William D. Kelly, Pennslyvania; William P. Frye, Maine; Joseph Jorgensen, Virginia; William Lawrence, Ohio; George W. McCrary, Iowa; John J. Patterson, South Carolina; Hiram Price, Iowa; Joseph H. Rainey, South Carolina; William F. Sapp, Iowa; Carl Schurz, Missouri; John Sherman, Ohio; Daniel E. Sickles, M. D. White, Indiana; Edwin Willits, Michigan; H. C. Young, Tennessee; and others.
John Sherman sent to the Governor of Ohio his resignation as United States Senator, to take effect immediately. Due to the continued illness of Secretary of the Treasury Lot M. Morrill, he proposed to take over the Department duties at once.
The Senate met in executive session and committees were appointed. No action, however, was taken on confirming the President’s Cabinet nominations prior to adjournment at 12:35 P. M.
11:15 A M. Ex-President U.S. Grant called upon the President to pay his respects, remaining only a few minutes.
12:00 Noon. Cabinet Meeting. All members of the old Cabinet were present except Secretary of Treasury Lot M. Morrill who was represented by Assistant Secretary Charles F. Conant. John Sherman was qualified as Secretary of the Treasury.
Afternoon. A delegation from Louisiana had an audience with the President; and Congressman J. H. Rainey of South Carolina called upon the President with a delegation of black men from South Carolina. The group included Robert Smalls, R. H. Cain, Judge Wright of the State Supreme Court, Hon. Wright of the State Supreme Court, Hon. F. L. Cardoza, State Senator, H. I. Maxwell and Colonel T. J. Minton; the delegation called to discuss affairs in South Carolina.
Birchard A. Hayes, the President’s eldest son, departed for Harvard Law School, to resume his studies there.
Evening. The President and Mrs. Hayes spent a quiet evening entertaining intimate friends, including Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite and ladies of his family; Colonel Thomas L. Casey; General Robert C. Schenck, Miss Schenck, and Mr. and Mrs. Robert Schenck; and others.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Cabinet meeting - Gen Grant’s cabinet. This morning, Gen. John G. Mitchell, wife and daughter, Col. L. C. Weir, wife & daughter, Geo. W. Jones, Miss Jones, Gen. R. P. Kennedy, Thos. G. McKell, R. H. Platt, Capt. [E. A.] Abbott and Billy Crump [of the President’s Civil War regiment] of our party started for Ohio. We have had a most enjoyable time. Frank Hickok, Uncle Joe [Webb], and Willie Gilbert left several days ago. Rud [Hayes] returned to Cornell yesterday and Birch leaves this evening. Dr. and Mrs. [John] Davis spent one night with us.
▪Saturday, March 10. 10:00-12:00 A. M. - A large number of office seekers crowded in upon the President. Applicants were referred to heads of departments.
The Senate completed action upon the President’s nominations for his Cabinet officers, as follows: Richard W. Thompson, Secretary of Navy; George W. McCrary, Secretary of War; and Charles Devens, Attorney General, were approved by resolution; David M. Key, Postmaster General, approved 58 to 2, Senators William H. Eaton, Connecticut and Allen G. Thurman, Ohio, against; William M. Evarts, Secretary of State, approved 44 to 2, Senators William H. Eaton and Allen G. Thurman, against; and Carl Schurz, for Secretary of Interior, approved 55 to 1, Senator J. B. Chaffee, Colorado, against.
Afternoon: During the afternoon and evening, the President received congratulations upon the fact that the Government was now fully organized. “The President,” a correspondent noted, “was in an excellent humor - in fact, there is almost too great an exuberance of spirits displayed by Mr. Hayes.”
3:00-5:00 P. M. Mrs. Hayes held her first Saturday afternoon public reception, in the Blue Room. She was assisted in receiving by Mrs. William Dennison, Mrs. William K. Rogers, Miss Emily Hayes Platt, Miss Emma Foote; and presentations were made to Mrs. Hayes by Colonel Thomas L. Casey. Colonel Henry C. Corbin made the presentations to the President. The social correspondents said of this first public reception: “There was too dense a crowd for it to be enjoyable.” [Raymonde]. “Equalled Mrs. Grant’s last reception. Largest [crowd] ever seen in the White House by daylight. . . .Crowd was made up of non-residents. . . .” [Miss Grundy].
Evening: Mrs. Hayes received social callers in the Library, and these included Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite, George Bancroft, Senator John B. Gordon, General and Mrs. James A. Garfield with Miss Caroline L. Ransom, artist, Mrs. Thomas J. McLain, Jr., and Mrs. Frank H. Mason. The ladies were all from Ohio and friends of Mrs. Hayes. Assisting Mrs. Hayes were Miss Emily H. Platt and Mrs. William K. Rogers.
President Hayes was occupied with a Southern delegation for a part of the evening.
James A. Garfield’s diary: At 6 p.m. Crete, Mother and I dined at Mrs. [Thomas J.] McLain’s with Mrs. [Frank H.] Mason (nee Birchard) and Miss [Caroline L.] Ransom. At half-past, I took the ladies to the Executive Mansion, and made a long call on Mrs. Hayes and the President. When the visitors thinned out, I had a full and free talk with the President on the Senatorship. He is very anxious to have me stay in the House and I agreed to do so. He wrote me a letter which I am at liberty to publish, asking me to stay. We returned home at half-past ten, having had a very pleasant visit. Mrs. Mason found that she and the President were relatives. Her father [Matthew Birchard] and the President’s mother were second cousins.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Mr. & Mrs. John W. Herron of Cincinnati, who came on with our party from Ohio, left this morning for home via New York City. They are as pleasant and lovable people as I have ever had the pleasure of meeting. Mrs. Herron or Aunt Harriet charmed everyone by her beautiful face and pleasing manners.
▪Sunday, March 11. 9:00 A. M. - The President, accompanied by a friend, took a long walk in the suburbs, returning to the White House after 10 o’clock.
10:30 A. M. The President walked to church services at the Foundry Methodist Episcopal Church, accompanied by Mrs. Hayes, Emma Foote, Emily H. Platt, Webb C. Hayes, John W. Andrews and Colonel Henry C. Corbin. Every pew was filled, although it was not generally known which church the President would attend. The President and party were shown to unoccupied seats near the front of the church. Services were conducted by the Reverend Dr. James A. Duncan, President of Randolph-Macon College, Macon, Georgia.
Afternoon: Accompanied by his son Webb, Secretary John Sherman and Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll, the President took a short ride about the city, making some calls, and returning to the White House about 4:00 P.M.
6:00 P. M. Family dinner. Vice President William A. Wheeler, John Sherman and Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll joined the Hayes family at dinner, and remained until about 8:00 o’clock.
Evening: Social callers were received by Mrs. Hayes, among them Mrs. Morrison R. Waite and Miss Waite and Mr. & Mrs. Samuel M. Young. The President received a number of Southern gentlemen including Senators John B. Gordon, of Georgia and L. Q. C. Lamar, of Mississippi; Congressman Robert L. Gibson, of Louisiana, who came to urge the President to withdraw the troops from the state houses in Louisiana and South Carolina. The subject was discussed freely and candidly.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Father, Mother, Emily Platt, Miss Emma Foote, Gen. [Colonel H. C.] Corbin, John Andrews and myself attended the Foundry M. E. Church. Mr. Sec’y Sherman, Col. “Bob” Ingersoll, Father and I took a drive thro Georgetown, the Heights and Soldier’s Home. Mr. Vice President Wheeler, Mr. Sec’y Sherman and Col. Ingersoll took dinner with us. In the evening Senator Gordon of Ga. And Representative Gibson of La. called.
▪Monday, March 12. 9:00-10:00 A. M. - None of the large number of visitors to the White House were received by the President until after the Cabinet meeting. Mrs. Hayes received a number of ladies in the Red Parlor, including Mrs. J. W. Green, of Virginia; Miss Grouveneur, Miss Neil, Mrs. George Crook and Miss M. F. Wade.
10:00-12:00. Cabinet Meeting. All new members of the Cabinet were present except Secretary of Navy Richard W. Thompson. Prior to assembling, the oath of office was administered before Justice David K. Cartter, Chief Justice of the District, to all Cabinet members present except John Sherman, Secretary of Treasury, who had been sworn. The Cabinet considered the Southern situation and proposed Southern policy of the President. President Hayes stated that it was his wish that the situation remain in statu quo until a thorough investigation could be made of the whole situation. Civil service should be conducted upon the basis of President Hayes’ letter of acceptance and inaugural address, the Cabinet agreed. A committee of two, Messrs. Evarts and Shurz, was appointed to draft a set of rules applicable to civil service appointments and report to the Cabinet on Wednesday.
12:00 Noon. Senator Richard J. Oglesby, Illinois, had an interview with the President which lasted “some time;” and Senator John A. Logan, Illinois, also was closeted with the President for a time.
12:30 P.M. Blue Room. The Chief Justice and Associate Justices of the United States Supreme Court called to pay respects to the President, all in attendance except Justice Stephen J. Field, absent in New York City. Introductions were made by Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite. Accompanying the justices were Senator David Davis of Illinois and D. W. Middleton, clerk and marshal of the Court.
The Justices of the United States Court of Claims were next to be recieved by the President, and introductions were made by Chief Justice Charles D. Drake.
Afternoon. The White House waiting room was filled with over 100 office seekers, delegations and individuals, many becoming impatient. The President received a few individuals, then held a sort of public reception for the balance. A “basket full of applications” were pressed upon the President from Senator Oliver P. Morgan, of Indiana, whose carriage stood in front of the White House. President Hayes excused himself and entered the carriage of the crippled statesman for several minutes.
2:00 P.M. Several delegations were received by the President including one from the District; black citizens from Richmond, Virginia; British Settler’s Association from Virginia; ex-officers of Meager’s Irish Brigade; and many individuals.
Evening. Social callers pressed themselves upon President and Mrs. Hayes in large numbers.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Congressmen with Recom[mendatins] and Office Seekers in large numbers.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 12 - To Steward (cash) $15.00.”
▪Tuesday, March 13. Morning: - Senators and Representatives in large numbers came to see the President, crowds as large as on any day since the new President entered the White House. There were also delegations from Mississippi, Louisiana, South Carolina, and the Pacific Coast. At 10:30, Richard W. Thompson, the new Secretary of Navy, accompanied by retiring Secretary George M. Robeson, arrived as the White House and were joined there by Senator Olive P. Morton. The President received the three in the Red Parlor and presented a commission to Secretary Thompson. The oath of office had been taken before Judge David K. Cartter Monday evening.
10:00 A. M. Cabinet Meeting. Postponed to Wednesday.
The President through Private Secretary W. K. Rogers, sent to the Senate his nominations of several office holders whose terms had or were expiring. All were confirmed. The nomination of William Stone of South Carolina to be United States Attorney for that state was not confirmed.
Luncheon. Guests with the President were George A. Sheridan of Louisiana; C. C. Fulton, of Maryland; and William A. Howard, of Michigan.
1:30 P.M. Those remaining to see the President were received briefly, to shake hands, and then the President left the White House by the rear for a drive with George Jones of the New York Times.
Afternoon: Mrs. Zachariah Chandler, Mrs. Justice Samuel F. Miller, Mrs. A. H. Markland and Mrs. H. C. Parsons, among others, were received by Mrs. Hayes. Later, the First Lady accompanied by her daughter Fanny and Emily H. Platt, took a drive in a carriage and upon their return dined with guests who had been with the Hayeses since their arrival in Washington.
Evening: Senator Benjamin H. Hill, Georgia, had a lengthy talk with the President, and while he was at the White House, the President also granted an audience with ex-Senator J. M. Harvey, Kansas, General M. C. Butler, S. C., and ex-Lieutenant Governor Davidson B. Penn, Louisiana.
Mrs. Hayes’ guests in the Library included Colonel and Mrs. Robert G. Ingersoll, Miss Ingersoll and friends; Judge and Mrs. Arthur McArthur; Senator and Mrs. Hannibal Hamlin, General W. T. Sherman, etc.
Thomas F. Pendle, White House usher, remarked to a reporter “The last two nights beat anything in the way of social calls I ever saw, and I have been here for thirteen years.”
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: A great many Congressmen called today, also quite a large number of Office Seekers. A large Va. delegation called to pay respects and to endorse the [Southern] “policy”. Senator Simon Cameron resigned[,] being very old 78 yrs and also not fully in accord with the Southern policy. His son J. Don[ald] Cameron[,] late Sec’y of War was nominated in the caucus of Penna Rep[ublican] Legislators today and the “Policy” endorsed.
Gen. Geo. A. Sheridan of La.; the Editor of the Baltimore American Mr. [C. C. Fulton], and Hon. [Willima A.] Howard of Mich. took lunch with us today. In the Evening Mr. Chief Justice Waite, Senator D. Davis, Col. Bob Ingersoll, wife, daughters & Bro[ther Ebon Clark Ingersoll, a lawyer], and M. C. Who served with father. Senator Bill Hill of Ga., Hamburg Massacre [M. C.] Butler [of S.C.], Ex[-Lieutenent] Gov[Davidson B.] Penn of La. Called in the evening. Mr. Geo Jones of the New York Times took a drive with father.
▪Wednesday, March 14. Morning. - No callers without appointment were admitted to the President’s office in anticipation of a Cabinet meeting. Those seeing the President included all members of the Cabinet except Secretary of State Evarts; Senators Aaron A. Sargent, California, and Henry L. Dawes, Massachusetts; and James A. Garfield, Ohio, S. S. Cox, New York, William A. Wallace, Pennsylvania, and E. John Ellis, Louisiana, met with the President prior to 11:00 o’clock. Ex-Secretary J. Donald Cameron called, interrupting a talk between the President and Carl Schurz. Numerous delegations also called.
The President sent to the Senate by his Private Secretary, 27 nominations, 25 being re-appointments. All but three of the nominations were approved.
10:00 A. M. Cabinet meeting postponed due to absence of Secretary of State William M. Evarts.
1:00 P. M. - 4:00 P. M. The doors were opened to all in the waiting room to see and shake hands with the President.
4:00 P. M. The President with his son Webb called upon James A. Garfield. Garfield wrote in his diary: At 4:00 o’clock the President and his son called to see me and spent half to three quarters of an hour. He said he was greatly embarrassed by the fact that there was a thousand offices to fill in the course of two weeks and it was impossible for him to make good appointments in such a hurry. He proposed to fill only those which are now vacant and would get the Senate to adjourn and let the rest go until he could take his time. . . .He expressed great interest in the Senatorship from Ohio, saying he did not want an unexperienced person like [W. Perry] Howland nor a hostile one like [Alphonso] Taft, and did not know but I had better be a candidate. I told him it was too late, I could not consent.
5:00-6:00 P. M. Cabinet meeting. All present, including Vice President Wheeler. The Southern question was only briefly discussed. The President has received positive assurance from conservatives in Louisiana and South Carolina that no outbreaks of violence would occur and that the rights of all citizens would be protected if troops are immediately withdrawn. Most of the meeting concerned which appointments filling vacancies could be filled during the recess of Congress; and civil service reform matters. Ex-Postmaster General James N. Tyner, it was announced, had decided to accept the position of First Assistant Postmaster General, and that Frederick Douglass would accept the office of United States Marshal for the District of Columbia.
7:00-8:00 P. M. Blue Room. The Hutchinson family singing group – Mr. and Mrs. John Hutchinson, Mrs. Fannie B. Hutchinson and young sons Jackson, with E. G. And D. D. Hughes – gave a vocal concert for President and Mrs. Hayes and guests. Their songs included “The Good Old Days of Yore;” “One Hundred Years Hence;” “Freedman’s Song;” “The Blue and the Gray;” and “The Good Time Coming.”
7:00-10:00 P. M. Cabinet meeting. The meeting was called for 7 P.M. and Secretaries Schurz and Thompson and Postmaster General Key arrived shortly after that hour. Other members did not arrive until much later, having been at a dinner given by Senator George F. Hoar at Wormsleys.
President Hayes wrote in his diary: The chief disappointment among the influential men of the party [over the Cabinet selection] was with [Roscoe] Conkling, [James G.] Blain, [Simon] Cameron, [John A.] Logan and their followers. They were very bitter. The opposition was chiefly to Evarts, Key, and especially Schurz. Speeches were made, and an attempt to combine with the Democrats to defeat the confirmation of the nominations only failed to be formidable by [reason of] the resolute support of the southern Senators like [John B.] Gordon, [Georgia], [L. Q. C.] Lamar, [Louisiana], and [Benjamin H.]Hill, [Georgia]. After a few days the public opinion of the country was shown by the press to be strongly with me. All of the nominations were confirmed by almost a unanimous vote.
The expressions of satisfaction from all parts of the country are most gratifying. The press and the private correspondence of [William K.] Rogers [private secretary] and myself are full of it.
My policy is trust, peace, and to put aside the bayonet. I do not think the wise policy is to decide contested elections in the States, by the use of the national army.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 14 - To Steward [John A. Simms] (cash), $20.00.”
▪Thursday, March 15. Morning: There was a noticed decrease in the number of office seekers. Numerous senators and representatives called, including Senators George E. Spencer, Alabama; Ambrose E. Burnside, Rhode Island; Bainbridge Wadleigh, New Hampshire, Algernon S. Paddock, Nebraska; John J. Patterson, South Carolina; ex-Senator P. W. Hitchcock, Nebraska. Representatives included William S. Shallenberger, Pennsylvania; Joseph G. Cannon, Illinois; Charles Foster, Ohio; Simon B. Conover, Florida, with a delegation including F. C. Humphreys, Governor Marcellus L. Stearns and ex-Senator Thomas W. Osborn; and ex-Congressman W. H. H. Stowell, Virginia. Fred. Douglass was also received, as well as a delegation from Maryland.
The President sent to the Senate by his Private Secretary, nominations of 26 persons for government positions, including Fred Douglass for District Marshal. Two nominations were not confirmed.
12:30 P. M. All remaining in the White House waiting room were admitted to the President’s office to pay their respects only.
12:50 P. M. The President retired briefly to rest before the Cabinet meeting.
1:00 P. M. Cabinet meeting. The matter of appointments occupied most of the meeting.
Afternoon. Mrs. Hayes received numerous social callers among them being General and Mrs. W. McKee Dunn, Mr. and Mrs. Edwin L. Stanton, and Mrs. Henry C. Corbin.
4:30 P. M. The President and Mrs. Hayes accompanied by Webb took a carriage ride in the suburbs of Washington for about an hour.
9:00 P. M. John W. Andrews, guest of President and Mrs. Hayes since the inauguration departed for Columbus.
Evening. Among those having appointments with the President during the evening were Senator John B. Gordon, Georgia, Governor William Pitt Kellogg and Judge John Edwards Leonard, Louisiana, all having separate talks.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: We feel some anxiety about the result of the Senatorial contest in Ohio. We still think that Judge [Stanley] Matthews will be successful.
▪Friday, March 16. 9:30 A. M. – Several delegations called, one of the District business men urging the appointment of Sayles J. Bowen as District Commissioner.
The President’s notes for the day: Friday [March] 16th 18. Cabinet meeting at 10 a.m. 7-1/2 p.m. Defrees & Smith. Fred Douglass? [Mike J.] Waldron, Marshal W[est] Tenn.
10:00 - 11:30 A. M. Cabinet meeting. Appointments were considered.
Following the Cabinet meetings no callers were received. The President, Mrs. Hayes, Webb Hayes and Emily H. Platt, took a long carriage ride.
Evening: Callers, by appointment, upon the President included John D. Defrees and George S. Smith; Senator Stephen W. Dorsey, Arkansas, and Professor J. M. Langston, who had a long conference with the President.
The President wrote in his diary: Stanley Matthews was yesterday night nominated for Senator at Columbus. This is an endorsement of the policy of peace and home rule – of local self-government. A number of Southern Republican members are reported to go over to the Democrats. On the other hand, the bar of this District [of Columbia] are in a state of mind because of Fred. Douglass, the most distinguished and able colored man in the Nation, has been nominated marshal for the District. If a liberal policy toward the late Rebels is adopted, the ultra Republicans are opposed to it; if the colored people are honored, the extremists of the other wing cry out against it. I suspect I am right in both cases.
Different plans for La. & S. C. are offered:
1. A new election.
2. Lawful action of Legislation
3. Acknowledge [S. B.] Packard and [D. H.] Chamberlain, and leave them to their own state remedies.
4. Withdraw troops and leave events to take care of themselves.
Here I am too crowded with business to give thought to these questions. Let me get a few outside opinions; Judge [William M.] Dickson [of Cincinnati, Ohio].
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Last evening we heard the good news that Judge [Stanley] Matthews had been nominated for Senator on the 3d ballot. The vote stood Matthews 43, [W. Perry] Howland 29, [Samuel] Shellabarger 8 and old father [Alphonso] Taft 2.
Howland is a Representative in the Legislature from Ashtabula. He received Gen. Garfield’s support. Howland is a very promising lawyer and would have succeeded Garfield in the House [of] Rep[resentatives] if Garfield had been elected Senator. Howland’s vote was complimentary and to bring him out as a candidate for Governor this fall. Mr. Shellabarger is one of the ablest men in the State and next to Matthews was father’s choice. The N. Y. papers all recognize Matthew’s election as an endorsement of father’s Southern Policy.
▪Saturday, March 17. Morning – “St. Patrick’s Day in the morning,” wrote R. B. Hayes. “We had a turn of winter . . .” [Fay]. “Keen wind and frequent snow-showers. . . . We seem to be in mid-winter again.” [Miss Grundy]. “The day was ushered in by a violent storm of snow and hail, despite which various Irish societies met and paraded, plodding through slush and cold to the tunes of ‘The Wearing of the Green’ and ‘Erin go Bragh.’” [Raymonde]. Marshals of the St. Patrick’s Day parade requested the President to review the parade which he did from the White House. Numerous callers came to see the President.
Two nominations were sent by the President to the Senate by W. K. Rogers, and both were confirmed. The Senate adjourned sine die at 4:03 P. M., ending the special session called by President Grant which convened March 5th.
An old man named Springer, the sixth person who came to Washington to be inaugurated President, was sent to the insane asylum.
12:00-1:00 P. M. The President’s office doors were opened to all for nearly an hour for handshaking.
1:00 P. M. Among delegations received by the President was a group of business men from the District recommending appointments.
Afternoon. Judge M. W. Gibbs, of Arkansas, black elector-at-large on the Republican ticket, had a lengthy conference with the President.
3:00-5:00 P. M. Mrs. Hayes’ Saturday afternoon public reception, was held in the Blue Room. Mrs. Hayes was assisted in receiving by Mrs. John Sherman, Mrs. George W. McCrary, Emily Hayes Platt, Emma Foote, Mrs. Henry C. Corbin and Miss Mary Frances Waite. Many senators following adjournment of the Senate, called to pay respects to Mrs. Hayes prior to leaving Washington.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 17. To Steward [John A. Simms] (cash), $10.00.”
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Mr. C. C. Sniffen late Ass’t. [to the President] and now a Major in Pay M[aster] Dep[artmen] and detailed for the Exec[utive] Office has purchased [for the President] a “Landau” [carriage] of Brewster & Co of N.Y. City for $1150.00 and a pair of horses for $900.00. We expect them next week. Yesterday father sent in a great many nominations and also sent word to the Senate that he had no further business with them. Hon. Frederick douglas was nominated and after some opposition and considerable “talk”, confirmed as Marshal of the District of Columbia.
From 3 to 5 P. M. Father and Mother held a general reception in the Blue Room. It has been a very stormy day raining and snowing. I introduced the multitude to Father and Col. [Thomas L.] Casey to Mother. Mother was assisted by Mrs. Sec’y Sherman, Mrs. Sec’y McCrary, Miss Waite & friend & Cousin Emily Platt and Miss Emma Foote.
Miss [blank] of New Jersey in Blumer [sic] costume caused a slight sensation.
▪Sunday, March 18. Morning. – A quiet day at the White House. The President received very few of those who called.
The President, Mrs. Hayes, Webb Hayes and guests walked to the Foundry Methodist Episcopal Church to attend services and occupied a pew reserved for them. The church was filled. The minister, Reverend B. Peyton Brown delivered the sermon.
The President and Ms. Hayes did not go out again during the day.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Father, Mother, Miss Emma Foote, Fannie and I attended the Foundry M. E. Church this morning. Cousin Minnie [Emily Hayes Platt[ did not go to church.
Mr. Arthur [M.] Stem of Cincinnati called and we invited him to stop with us while in the city.
Ex Gov [Richard C.] McCormick, Sec’y of Rep[ublican] Na[tional] Com[mittee], called this evening . It is quite cold. Yesterday it snowed. I cleared up all my papers and am ready for the week’s work.
▪Monday, March 19. Morning. – Delegations from South Carolina, Florida and Maryland were received, and among the senators and representatives having conferences with the President were Blanche K. Bruce, Mississippi; Aaron H. Cragin, Vermont; Jacob M. Campbell, Pennsylvania; Nathaniel C. Deering, Iowa; Thomas W. Ferry, Michigan; Joseph J. Davis, North Carolina; Timothy O. Howe, Wisconsin; E. John Ellis, Louisiana; Nelson H. Van Vorhes, Ohio; William A. Phillips, Kansas; Joseph Jorgensen, Virginia; ex-Senators T. J. Robertson, South Carolina and P. W. Hitchcock, Nebraska; Secretaries Evarts and McCrary; Joseph Henry of the Smithsonian Institution; and others.
2:00 P. M. President Hayes declined to receive any more callers.
Afternoon: Senator John B. Gordon, Georgia, consulted with the President in regard to Louisiana affairs.
Frederick Douglass was qualified and U. S. Marshal for the District of Columbia and took charge of the office.
Evening: The White House parlors were thronged with visitors, carriages kept rolling up to the broad portico until a late hour. Among those received were ex-Senator Joseph Smith Fowler, Tennessee, with a party of Southern gentlemen.
▪Tuesday, March 20. Morning. – Many callers presented themselves at the White House but only Representative-elect John Turner Waite, New London, Connecticut, saw the President, by appointment.
10:00-1:30 P. M. Cabinet meeting. All members were present. Decision was reached to send a commission to Louisiana to investigate the situation there.
After the meeting, the President and Vice President Wheeler took a short carriage ride together to discuss the Louisiana question, and the Vice President remained as a guest at dinner.
Afternoon. Numerous delegations were received, including a large delegation of German citizens, to discuss German participation in government.
Mrs. Hayes entertained social callers in the Red Parlor.
Webb C. Hayes’ diary: Today I am “a man.” Whereupon, he ceased making entries in his diary. He received suitable presents from the family and from W. K. Rogers. At dinner, a birthday cake was placed on the table surrounded by 21 candles which were lighted and kept burning until midnight.
The President recorded in his diary: Webb was twenty-one today. Vice-President Wheeler, Arthur Stem, Emily Platt, and Emma Foote dined with us. An extra dinner got up by the new steward.
Cabinet meeting at 10 A. M. All present. Consider an extra session. [The 44th Congress had failed to pass the Army Appropriation Bill for the fiscal year beginning July 1]. Mr. Evarts and others opposed it on the grounds of expediency; but Sherman, McCrary, and Devens found legal objections to all plans for raising and disbursing money without appropriations. General opinion against attempt to get on without an extra session. No decision; subject passed.
Louisiana troubles discussed. All but Devens seemed indisposed to use force to uphold [Governor S. B.] Packard’s government, and his in not decidedly for it. All finally agreed to send a commission to Louisiana. Mr. Vice-President Wheeler, Judge David Davis, and Hoar [E. R.] agreed upon, and Governor [John C.] Brown, of Tennessee, and [Blanche K] Bruce, and K[enneth] Rayner [of North Carolina] suggested for the other two.
Mr. Evarts is of opinion that the military can’t be used to sustain one government against another in case of contested elections. The States must take care of those matters themselves.
I incline to think that people will not now sustain the policy of upholding a State Government against a rival government, by the use of forces of the United States. If this leads to the overthrow of the de jure government in a State, the de facto government must be recognized.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 20 – To Steward [John A. Simms] Commissionary Department, $125.72; Confectionary, $46.60; Milk, $9.50; Oysters, $9.10; To B[irchard] A. Hayes (draft), $104.00; To Know Co. Mutual Ins. Co. (draft), $22.60; To Tiffany & Co. (draft), $25.00; To John H. Kenny [Laces, Embroideries], $4.50. [Total, $346.82].”
▪Wednesday, March 21. Morning. – Senator, representatives and delegations called upon the President. The President reappointed a number of postmasters in Massachusetts and Minnesota whose terms were expiring.
10:00-2:00 P. M. Special meeting of the Cabinet. The proposed commission to Louisiana was considered, before taking any action toward withdrawing troops from the State House there.
Frederick Douglass called with a delegation of black leaders to discuss appointments with the President.
3:00 P. M. The White House was closed to public callers.
The music committee of the Republican Congressional Committee accompanied by the children of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Orphans Home and Miss Lottie Swallow, by invitation, were received in the Red Parlor by President and Mrs. Hayes. Songs were sung by the children and solos by Miss Swallow. Mrs. Hayes with her lady guests went out carriage riding until 5:00 P. M.
5:00 P. M. Special meeting of the Cabinet. The organization of the Louisiana Commission and its membership were considered.
Evening. The President and Mrs. Hayes went out early in the evening and returned to the White House about 8:30.
8:30 P. M. Numerous callers were received, including Admiral [John] Rodgers [superintendent, U.S. Naval Observatory], with ladies; James Q. Howard [author of the campaign biography of the President, The Life, Public Services and Select Speeches of Rutherford Birchard Hayes]: General James Thomas; and others.
President Hayes wrote in his diary; Cabinet meeting full. Decided to call extra session of Congress June 4 [subsequently changed to October]. Mr. Evarts will prepare proclamation. Talked over Commission to Louisiana. Decided to send Wheeler [who had served as a member of a Congressional Committee to investigate affairs in Louisiana in Janurary, 1875], Brown, Hoar, Harlas, and Lawrence. If Wheeler fails, then President [Theodore Dwight] Woolsey [of Yale University] or Judge David Davis was preferred; but he [Davis] declined. He [had] advised the commission. Thought it would do good.
▪Thursday, March 22. Morning. – Numerous senators and representatives called, and the President received by appointment Governor William Dennison and General J. H. Ketcham, District Commissioners.
10:00-12:30 P. M. Cabinet meeting. Southern problems considered. Secretary of War George W. McCrary was requested to prepare a complete list of troops in South Carolina and Louisiana. Members of the Louisiana Commission tentatively selected and invited to serve. No member of Congress included.
The President’s son, Rutherford P. Hayes, arrive from Cornell for a visit with his parents.
Several promotions in the White House staff were made by the President, based upon his civil service guidelines.
The President removed from office, Frank Burnett, Inspector of Steamboats, the first removal from office made by the President.
On the pavement in front of the east entrance to the White House grounds, a man put up a stand containing birds, as fortune tellers, for office-seekers calling at the White House.
Mrs. Hayes suffered a sick headache and received no visitors.
Afternoon. Various delegations called, and a large crowd pressed in upon the President, to pay respects.
Accompanied by Senator Oliver P. Morton, Indiana, the President went for a long carriage drive, and upon returning received Secretary of Interior Carl Schurz and several other gentlemen.
2:30 P. M. Cabinet meeting. South Carolina matters discussed; the Cabinet decided against sending a commission to South Carolina.
Evening. Several Cabinet officers called and discussed with the President some legal aspects of the Southern situation.
General W. T. Sherman escorted Emma Foote, Emily H. Platt, Webb C. Hayes and Rutherford P. Hayes to the National Theatre to see Mary Anderson in the character of Megg Merrilies in the play Guy Mannering, based upon Sir Walter Scott’s novel of that name.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 22. To Brewster & Co., Landau, $1,150.00; To pain [of] carriage horses, $900.00.”
▪Friday, March 23. Morning – “We are having summer weather today, and fires and cloaks are abandoned.” [Miss Gundy]. The President received several Congressional leaders.
Mrs. Hayes went carriage riding with Emma Foote, Emily H. Platt and Rutherford P. Hayes.
Charles M. Hendley, formerly of the Interior Department, was appointed stenographer at the White House.
10:00-12:30 P. M. Cabinet meeting. The cabinet decided that letters should be addressed to Governors Wade Hampton and D. H. Chamberlain, of South Carolina, contending governors, to come to Washington and confer with the President. A letter was drafted and mailed over the signature of the President’s private secretary, W. K. Rogers.
Afternoon. Several delegations called, including bishops of the African M. E. Church, led by Professor John M. Langston; and a delegation of black citizens from Richmond, Virginia, bearing resolutions endorsing the President’s Southern policy.
1:30 P. M. Ex-President U.S. Grant called at the White House, by special appointment, and took lunch with the Hayes family. Mrs. Grant was expected but was ill. The Grants planned to leave the city for a short visit. While the President was at lunch, L. Q. C. Lamar, Mississippi, called but did not wait.
After lunch, the President too a long walk with his secretary, W. K. Rogers. Mrs. Hayes went carriage riding with Emily H. Platt and Webb C. Hayes, somewhat recovered from her indisposition.
President Hayes noted in his diary: It is not the duty of the President of the United States to use the military power of the Nation to decide contested elections in the States. He will maintain the authority of the United States and keep the peace between the contending parties. But local self-government means the determination by each State for itself of all questions as to its own local affairs.
The real thing to be achieved is safety and prosperity for the colored people. Both houses of Congress and the public opinion of the country are plainly against the use of the army to uphold either claimant to the State Government in case of contest. The wish is to restore harmony and good feeling between sections and races. This can only be done by peaceful methods. We wish to adjust the difficulties in Louisiana and South Carolina so as to make one government out of two in each State. But if this fails, if no adjustment can be made, we must then adopt the nonintervention policy, except so far as may be necessary to keep the peace.
▪Saturday, March 24. Morning. – A large number of callers came to the White House but the army of office-seekers was not nearly so strong.
The President announced a number of appointments to office.
Arthur Stem, from Cincinnati, visitor at the White House, left.
Mrs. Hayes, still ill, received but a few callers.
10:00-1:00 P. M. Special Cabinet meeting. The Louisiana Commission discussed, as well as rules and regulations for the government of civil service. The plan was to issue a circular letter containing general principles of Civil service, details to be left to heads of departments.
Afternoon. Many delegations called, by appointment, including an Irish American delegation; delegations from Louisiana, Wisconsin, Mississippi, etc.
The President took a carriage drive with Secretary of Interior Carl Schurz.
3:00-5:00 P. M. Mrs. Hayes’ Saturday afternoon reception was not held due to her indisposition.
Evening. Among the callers upon the President was James Speed, Attorney General under Presidents Lincoln and Johnson, who had a lengthy chat with the chief executive.
President Hayes’ diary: The number of applications for office made to Mrs. Hayes and other members of the family is so great that a rule has been adopted that such applications will not be considered. No person connected with me by blood or marriage will be appointed to office.
White House expense account book (personal) Paid: “Mch 24. To Hack Hire – John Manigan, $13.87; To J. Hiliar, comb, $4.75.”
▪Sunday, March 25. Morning. – Several callers were received.
The President and Mrs. Hayes, Emily H. Platt, Lucy McFarland, Rutherford P. Hayes and Fanny Hayes, walked to services at the Foundry M.C. Church, and were early in the seats reserved for them. The pastor, Reverend B. Peyton Brown, preached.
Mrs. Hayes, still being somewhat indisposed, admitted but very few callers.
Afternoon. The President accompanied by Secretary of Treasury John Sherman, Wayne MacVeagh and Webb Hayes, too a long carriage ride.
President Hayes noted in his diary: Francis A. Stout [of New York] writes [me, March 22, from Charleston, S.C.] in favor of [Wade] Hampton from S.C. He says a “benevolent neutrality” is the true course.
▪Monday, March 26. Morning. – A damp, moist, disagreeable day, with a fall of rain in the afternoon.
Office seekers continued to call in large numbers.
The President announced a number of appointments which he had made.
Among those having interviews with the President were ex-Governor of New Hampshire, Walter Harriman; Senator Powell Clayton, Arkansas; and James A. Garfield, who called with Regent John Bryan Bowman of the University of Kentucky, seeking an office.
10:00-12:00. Cabinet meeting. The matters of withdrawal of troops from the State Houses in South Carolina and Louisiana, and the President’s statement that the gravity of the situation required caution and deliberation, were discussed.
Following the Cabinet meeting, an army of office-holders as well as a large gathering of individuals, were admitted to pay respects to the President. Among them were Messrs. J. Alexander Lorimer, James Knox and John Happy, of Liverpool, England.
3:00 P. M. Accompanied by his son Rutherford, the President took a long walk. Mrs. Hayes with her guests, Emma Foote, Emily H. Platt and Lucy McFarland, went out for a drive for the first time behind the President’s new horses, with Albert Hawkings President Grant’s old coachman, handling the reins.
William T. (“Billy”) Crump, former forage master of the 23rd Ohio Regiment under the President, the Colonel, Hayes, came to the White House. He was having difficulty being accepted by one of the ushers when he was recognized by Webb Hayes and invited to stay at the White House. Subsequently he became an usher, later, steward.
Evening. Mrs. Hayes and the President received numerous social callers.
The President’s memorandum: Monday, [March] 26, 77. Cabinet. 1. Courtesies to Gen. Grant. Catalogue books of Ex[ecutive] Mansion – Xchange them, get Adams Diary, &c. 2. Washington Monument.
▪Tuesday, March 27. Morning. – The usual throng of visitors, office-seekers, senators and representatives and others called to see the President. Governor D. H. Chamberlain, South Carolina, came with Senator John J. Patterson; and Senator James G. Blaine had a brief talk with the President.
An announcement was made of the President’s appointments to offices in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.
12:00-2:00 P. M. Cabinet meeting. The Southern situation was considered, particularly affairs in Louisiana. Representatives R. L. Gibson and E. John Ellis, and ex-Representative W. M. Levy, Louisiana, were admitted to discuss details with the Cabinet.
2:00 P. M. Governor D. H. Chamberlain, South Carolina, called by appointment for a long interview with the President.
The President relaxed on a long carriage ride.
Evening. Secretary of Interior Carl Shurz was closeted with the President for an extended time. Mrs. Hayes was at home to all callers, and many came.
9:00 P. M. Accompanied by his son, Webb, President Hayes went for a short, brisk walk, to get a “breath of fresh air.”
▪Wednesday, March 28. Morning. – Senators and Representatives and other callers were numerous.
President Hayes’ memoranda for the day: Wednesday, 28th Mch. Cabinet meeting at 12 M. Senator [Aaron A.] Sargent [California] as to seizure of MONTANA. [Consider] Chas Lee Collins for West Point [son of H. E. Collins, Cincinnati. He was appointed to enter West Point in June, 1878]; Gov. [D. H.] Chamberlain, 2 P. M.; Senator [Blanche K.] Bruce [Mississippi], 8 P. M.
A number of Presidential appointments were announced.
12:00-2:00 P. M. Cabinet meeting. The Cabinet continued consideration of Southern problems, and membership on the Louisiana Commission. The two gubernatorial claimants of South Carolina are to submit their respective statements of claims to the President and Cabinet, orally or in writing.
2:00 P. M. By appointment, Governor D. H. Chamberlain held an interview with the President.
Delegations of office-seekers were received.
William H. Crook, oldest clerk at the White House, having been appointed during Grant’s first term, was designated by President Hayes as disbursing officer for the Executive Mansion.
8:00 P. M. Senator Blanche K. Bruce, Mississippi, called by appointment.
Evening. Social callers at the White House were numerous, most being in public service.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid “Mch 28. To Lewis & Livingston, Cinti, $358.29; To John Shilleto & Co., Cinti, $479.24.”
▪Thursday, March 29. Morning. – Office-seekers and other callers at the White House were more numerous that ever. Unable to see the President, their cards were left with the doorkeeper of the President’s private office.
Judge T. J. Mackey, South Carolina, delivered to the President a letter from Wade Hampton who had arrived in Washington and was staying at the Willard Hotel. The President responded by sending his Private Secretary W. K. Rogers to General Hampton, to say that the President would see him at 1:00 o’clock at the White House.
The President’s appointment of several Indian agents were announced.
From the President’s notes: 29th Mch . Cabinet Meeting. 1. To publish Wade Hampton’s letters. 2. W. V. Turner a cl[er]k in Treasury Dept. - colored.
12:00-1:00 P. M. Cabinet Meeting. Principal topic of discussion was Southern affairs. Personnel for the Louisiana Commission was decided upon and announced as follows: Judge C. B. Lawrence, of Illinois; Joseph R. Hawley, of Connecticut; Ex-Governor John C. Brown, of Tennessee; Wayne MacVeigh, of Pennsylvania; John M. Harlan, of Kentucky, with Judge Lawrence as chairman. The Commission consisted of four Republicans and one Democrat.
1:00 P. M. General Wade Hampton arrived in company with Senator John B. Gordon, Georgia, and Attorney General James Connor, of South Carolina, and were received by the President. Following some conversation, the party entered the private apartment of the President’s, to have luncheon and to discuss the South Carolina problems. The President did not commit himself.
2:30 P. M. James A. Garfield called to see the President. He wrote in his diary: Found him [the President] closeted with Wade Hampton on the South Carolina question. Had a long conversation with his private secretary Rogers and also with Capt. [Alfred E.] Lee, for many years Private Secretary to Governor Hayes.
Afternoon. Delegations received by the President included one of Quakers from Philadelphia and another representing the Charleston, S. C. Chamber of Commerce. After which, the President went out for a carriage ride.
8:00 P. M. Governor D. H. Chamberlain called, by appointment, and found Carl Schurz with the President. The President informed Governor Chamberlain that, although he had had an extended talk with General Hampton, it would be necessary to have further consultations with him before he could arrive at any conclusions regarding a compromise or agreement.
Evening. Social called in usual numbers were received by Mrs. Hayes.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid “Mch 29. To [blank], $1,000.00; To carriage hire, $1.75.”
▪Friday, March 30. Morning. – Senators and Representatives and others came in considerable numbers; many were received by the President. Miss M. W. Greenwell, grandniece of George Washington, visited briefly.
Public office appointments were announced by the President’s office.
Later in the morning, the President came into the hall and held a general hand-shaking with callers whom he was unable to see privately.
11:30 A. M. Various delegations, one form Arkansas and another consisting of black citizens from Alexandria, Virginia, had audiences.
12:00-3:00 P. M. Cabinet meeting. The cabinet reviewed the conversations which the President had had with General Wade Hampton. A careful estimate was made of all statements made by the President to both General Hampton and Governor Chamberlain. Most of the Cabinet members favored a withdrawal of troops from the South Carolina State House soon but not immediately.
Luncheon. Guests at luncheon with the President were Joseph R. Hawley and John M. Harlan, of the Louisiana Commission. The letter of instructions to the Commission from the Secretary of State and the Cabinet would be made public on April 3, and on the morning of of the 3rd, the Commission would depart for Louisiana. Following the luncheon, the President took the guests for a carriage ride.
Evening: As usual, Mrs. Hayes received numerous social callers.
▪Saturday, March 31. Morning. – The White House appeared deserted; no visitors at all.
9:45 A. M. The President and Mrs. Hayes and family went out to the Arsenal grounds where they were received by a 21 gun salute. The program included a review of the troops, followed by a skirmish demonstration, after which the participants were introduced to the President, the Secretary of War and others, and then released to their quarters. This was followed by a demonstration of the Gatling Gun and a walk through the grounds, with a brief stop at General William H. French’s headquarters.
11:00 A. M. The President received General Wade Hampton for a long conference. Immediately after the conference, General Hampton wrote a letter to the President setting forth his guarantees for preserving order in South Carolina, once the troops had been withdrawn from the State House.
12:00. Cabinet meeting. The South Carolina question was carefully reviewed. Result of the deliberations was that the U.S. troops would be withdrawn from the State House at Columbia but not from the State. Troops would remain in the State as a guarantee that both civil and political rights of citizens would be maintained. Copies of this decision would be furnished both General Hampton and Governor Chamberlain. [The President’s order to the Secretary of War for withdrawing the troops from the Columbia State House, thus formally ending Reconstruction in South Carolina, would be issued on Tuesday, April 3, 1977.]
James A. Garfield wrote in his diary this day: . . . .I drove with Gen. [S. C.] Boynton to the Arsenal Grounds to witness the review of the Artillery under Gen. [William H.] French. The President and his family, the Secy of War and General Sherman were present. The weather was fine and the troops maneuvered well. Returned at 11 o’clock. . . .Called at the President’s but found him engaged with Wade Hampton. Had a long talk with [W. K.] Rogers, his private secretary, in regard to the Southern policy.
Appointments and commissions made by the President during the day were announced.
3:00-5:00 P. M. Mrs. Hayes did not hold Saturday afternoon public reception this day.
White House expense account book (personal). Paid: “Mch 31. To Freight on carriage, $32.00. To Mrs. L. A. McLean [shirtmaker], shirts, $30.00. R. P. Hayes (draft), $75.00; A. E. Lee & H. C. Corbin, bills paid, $150.00; Mrs. Herron, Emily [Platt] & Gen. Mitchell, bills paid, $130.00 [Total paid out for the month, $4,769.72].
▪Sunday, April 1, 1877. Easter Sunday. Morning. 7:00 A. M. – Stanley Matthews, Senator-elect from Ohio, just arrived in Washington, called on the President who was up to receive him. He stayed for breakfast.
The President, accompanied by Emma Foote, attended Foundry M. C. Church. Mrs. Hayes was not feeling well. Emily Platt and John W. Andrews, Jr., White House guests, went to the Church of the Epiphany. At the Foundry, as there was difficulty seating all persons present, President Hayes invited several strangers to occupy seats in his pew.
Afternoon. Accompanied by ex-Secretary of the Interior Zachariah Chandler, Secretary of Treasury John Sherman and Webb Hayes, the President took a long carriage ride. Their ride, was along the line of the Washington aqueduct, going as far as the “union arch,” then better known as the “Cabin John Bridge.”
Mrs. Hayes, with John W. Andrews, Jr., and her children Fanny and Scott, also went out for a carriage ride.
Evening. Many social callers made visits to the White House.
The day was a quiet Easter Sunday for the President and Mrs. Hayes.